首页 > 考研 > 考研翻译 > 考研英汉翻译笔记之起形容词作用的分词

文章详情

考研英汉翻译笔记之起形容词作用的分词

起形容词作用的分词(形容词型分词)

记得前两天有旺友问“动词+ed"作形容词的问题,刚好张道真的一本语法书上有很详细的介绍,准备把它拿到这和大家共享。有点长,而我打字又慢,慢慢输吧,争取在7-10天内完成:)

 

起形容词作用的分词(形容词型分词)

 

a. 分词作定语的用法

 

1)总的特点

分词可以作定语,修饰或是限制一个名词,可以放在它前面,也可以放在它后面。一般说来,简单分词可以放在名词前面,分词短语放在名词后面。

 

a)放在名词前面的分词

1/表示动作的分词:

一个现在分词或过去分词放在名词前时,可以表示一时的动作,这时它的动词特点胜过形容词特点,相当于一个定语从句

 

Do you see the rising sun(=sun which is rising) in the east?

 

They tried to surround the retreating troops (=troops which were retreating).

 

The roaring lion frightened all the animals in the jungle.

 

They tried to deliver the besieged city (=city which was being besieged).

 

These repeated efforts(=efforts which were being repeated) were still inadequate.

 

Those oppressed nations (=nations that are being oppressed ) are rising to liberate themselves.

 

2/表示特点的分词:

它也可以表示比较长久或永久性的特点。这时它的形容词特点胜过它的动词特点:

 

Germs are living creatures (=not inanimate things, creatures that can live).

 

She is a charming lady (attractive lady, lady who charms others)

 

The working classes are usually poor.

 

There were many flying fish.

 

We watched the moving pictures (=motion pictures)

 

Used cars (=old cars,cars which have been used) are cheaper than new ones/

 

Stolen love (=Secret love, love which is stolen), though dangerous, tastes exceptionally sweet.

 

This printed matter may be sent by mail.

 

3/和用作形容词的动名词的差别:

用在名词前的现在分词和用在名词前起形容词作用的动名词是有区别的,从意思上、重音上及是否加连字号,都有区别。下面各对句子中,第一句中带-ing词尾的动词为分词,第二句中带-ing词尾的动词为动名词:

 

Boiling water(=Water that is boiling) can produce enormous power.

Water begins to boil at the boiling-point(=point at which liquid boils;而不是point which boils).

 

He is a walking dictionary (=dictionary that canwalk, learned man).

He came with a walking-stick (=stick for walking;stick that os walking)

 

How clever that dancing bear (=bear that is dancing) is!

He is a dancing-master (=master who teaches dancing).

 

Someone said many years ago that China was a sleeping lion (=lion that was sleeping).

He is in the sleeping-car (=car for sleeping,而不是 car that is sleeping).

 

Running water is cleaner than stagnant water.

It is a running-track for sportsmen.

 

4/用作名词的情况

和形容词一样,某些分词在加the时(后面不跟名词),可以代表一类人或一种抽象东西:

Which are more numerous, the dead or the living (=the living people)

 

Something must be done immediately with the wounded and the dying.

 

What should we do with the oppressed, the defeated the insulted and the injured?

 

Can we say anything about the unseen (=the thing unseen) and the unknown (=the thing unknown)?