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考研英汉翻译实践笔记之放在名词后的分词



放在名词后的分词多数是分词短语,它可以变成一个定语从句(尽管定语从句不一定都能变成分词短语):

1/表示一时动作的分词短语:
The danger threatening the world (=which is threatening the area ) is too many people with too little food.

They looked on at the city being attacked by the enemy (=which was being attacked by the enemy).

The man being followed by guards (=who are being followed by guards) is a party leader.

2/表示长久特点的分词短语:
A man respecting others (=who respects others ) will be respected.

Can you teach a boy refusing to be taught (=who refuses to be taught)?

It is difficult to save a man enchanted by the beauty of a woman.

Books called the comics (=that are called the comics ) are sometimes harmful to children.

Any books well read (=that are well read ) are good books and any men well treated are good men.

2)名词前作定语的分词
a)用在名词前的不及物现在分词
名词前的现在分词多数为不及物动词:
The trembling criminal hung his head.

Do you see the floating bridge there?

She is a doting mother.

The existing situation will last some years.

In the field are nodding trees, murmuring rivulets, smiling flowers, singing birds, swimming ducks and playing children.

He is an uncompromising diplomat.

It proves futile in spite of all untiring efforts.

This upright man always takes an unswerving course.

It is an unavailing plot.

There is an undying friendship between them.

b)用在名词前的及物现在分词
1/意义上的宾语为‘人’的情况:
及物动词的分词也可用在名词前面,但它们大多表示情绪。它们的意义上的宾语指一般人或某些人,是不说出的。
It is a charming story=It is a story that charms us (me,you or anyone).

We have an encouraging prospect. =We have a prospect that encourages us.

This exciting experience made him sleepless. =This experience, which excited him, made him sleepless.

It is an interesting (or surprising, amazing, moving, entertaining, affecting ) story.

He has a puzzling problem to solve.

In the forest there happened a shocking (or frightening ) case of murder.

Her fascinating eyes and her tempting mouth put you in a reverie.

It is a misleading statement, a deceiving promise.

An unconvincing rumor spread over the city.

2/意义上的宾语为‘物’的情况:
有少数及物动词的分词,它们的意义上的宾语也不说出, 却是指‘物’的,这时要经过琢磨才知道宾语是什么:
It is an arresting sight (=a sight that arrests somebody's attention), an imploring look (=a look that implores somebody's help), a revealing story (= a story that reveals things hidden or kept secret), a deserving cause (=a cause that deserves sympathy or help).

He is a grasping attorney (an attorney who are eager to grasp money).

A knowing man (=a man who knows all the secret),
an understanding man (a man who understands others' feelings),
a forbidding headmaster (=a headmaster who forbids others to approach or to like him),
a loving father (=a father who loves children or others),
a promising youth (a youth who promises to suceed),
a designing businessman (=a bisinessman who designs some intrigues),
an unfeeling judge (=judge who feels no sympathy),
an unforgiving father (=a father who does not forgive any fault),
an unthinking playboy(=a playboy who does not think of the consequences)
an unsparing housewife (=housewilfe who does not spare money),
an unassuming scholar (=a scholar who does not assume importance),
an unpretending manager (=a manager who does not pretend importance).

c)用在名词前的及物过去分词
1/一般过去分词:
及物动词的过去分词常可用在名词前作它的修饰语。它表示同句谓语动词所表示的动作发生时正在被进行的一个动作,也可以表示那时之前一个被动动作的后果:
He is an honoured abd respected professor (=professor who is honoued and respected).

We live in a crowded area.

The oppressed natons are beginning to rise.

The persecuted patriot hid himself in the jungle.

I drink boiled water (=water that has been boiled before, but is no more boiled and is free from germs now ).

There are many trained nurses (=nurses who have been trained before, but are efficient now) in this hospital.

Don't tread on the broken glass (=glass that has been broken before, but may hurt somebody's feet now).

Used cars cost cheaper than new ones.

There are thousands of wounded soldiers in this lost battle.

He is a qualified teacher.

2/已失去动词特点的分词:
a/-en(-n)结尾的过去分词
有不少过去分词已失去动词特点,成为纯粹的形容词,它们有些以-en(-n)结尾:
His honesty is a proven fact.

I like frozen fruit.

This is the tomb of forgotten heroes.

How hot is molten iron?

It is said the devil has cloven hoofs.

Some drunken sailors are fighting in the street.

Do you see the hidden meaning of this letter?

下面词组中也包含这种分词:
driven snow, woven thread, sawn timber, hewn timber, a sunken cheek, shrunken clothes, a rotten egg, a shorn lamb, a gaven image, a terror-stricken child, a down-trodden people, ill-gotten money, a swollen face, a carven image, his broken promise.

b/un-前缀的过去分词:
"That is an unfounded rumour." "No, it is an undoubted fact."

There are unnumbered (or untold) crimes in this small city.

The enemy suddenly attacked this unguarded city.

His unaffected (or unfeigned) manners make me love him.

A rich man has to hear unearned praise from time to time.

What is the most important thing for an underdeveloped country?

That is an unheard-of (=extraordinary) case of murder.

He bacame the owner of undreamt-of wealth.

An unlooked-for (=unexpected) love letter came to me this morning.

An unwished-for (or unhoped-for )(=undesirable ) accident happened to me.

Nobody can stand this uncalled-for (=unnecessary and improper) insult.

c/有特别意义的过去分词:
有少数过去分词,用做纯粹的形容词时,意思发生一些变化,已不再是做动词时的意思,如动词celebrate表示‘庆祝’,但形容词celebrated却表示‘著名的’:
This is a celebrated city.

This is the most noted (=famous) mounain in Japan.

He is a confirmed pickpocket (=pickpocket who is unlikely to be changed).

He is a past-master (=one who has much experience) in deceit.

He will suffer for his ill-advised (=unwise) action.

I have never seen such a beautiful place in my born days (=in my lifetime).

d/有主动意义的过去分词:
大多数过去分词都有被动意思,例如 the unforgotten hero 的意思是 the hero that has been forgotten,又如 boiled water的意思是water that has been boiled. 但有少数过去分词却有主动意思,它们甚至起及物动词作用,可以有一个说不出的宾语。例如 a drunken sailor 意思是a sailor who has drunk too much liquor.
A learned scholar (=A scholar who has leanred very mush ) usually looks silly.

Experienced men (=Men who have experienced a lot) in this matter are not numerous.

A practised man (=A man who has often practised doing this) can do more than a greenhorn.

These cultivated people (=These people, who have cultivated their minds ) are my good friends.

The king loves his devoted subjects (=his subjects, who devotes themselves to him ).

A dissipated youth (=A youth who dissipates his time and money ) will ruin himself.

Is a contented man (=a man who contents himself with what he has ) always happy?

The mistaken traveller has had a narrow escape.

d)用在名词前的宾补动词的过去分词
某些宾补动词的过去分词可以用在名词前面做定语。这是一类特殊的宾补动词,它们用在下面这类句子中:
They declared him to be a traitor.

They proved the statement to be false.

He professed himself to be a scientist.

下面句子包含了以这类动词作定语的过去分词
This is the reputed scene (= the place which is reputed to be the scene ) of robbery.

John is the supposed father (=the man who is supposed to be the father) of this child.

He is an avowed member (= a man who has avowed himself to be a member ) of this party.

He is a professed scientist.

The confessed (or admitted ) thief was sent to prison.

e)用在名词前的不及物动词的过去分词
有几十个不及物动词的过去分词可用在名词前作定语。它们多数表示一种变化,表示一种完成的动作,一种状态。它们已失去动词的特点,不再有被动意义,几乎成了形容词:
A retired official (=An official who has retired or is retired) lives next door.

He is a returned student (=a student who has returned from abroad).

The decayed tooth should be pulled off.

A married man is more stable in character than a bachelor.

Thousands of people mourned for the deceased actress.

Both fading and faded flowers were blown about in the strong wind.

Here and there were decaying or decayed leaves.

We see changing and changed modes of life every year and every day.

下面词组中各包含一个这样的过去分词:
abdicted emperor, obsconed debtor, aged poet, arrived guest, assembled company, eloped pair, escaped prisoner, failed candidate, fallen angel, fled robber, perjured witness, travelled writter
departed glories, expired lease, foregone conclusion, mouldered temple, risen sun, rotten fruit, shrunken clothes, sunken rocks, vanished civilization, withered leaves, well-read and well-behaved young man, plain-spoken politician, free-spoken man, full-grown girl, full-blown roses

3)在名词后作定语的分词
分词也可以放在它们所修饰的名词的后面
a)简单分词
简单分词,不管是现在分词还是过去分词,放在名词后的情况是比较少的,但在下面情况下可以放在名词后面:
1/如果它受到强调,感到像一个从句:
I want to know the person coming (=who comes or is coming)

Who were the people participating (=who participated )?

I went into the room adjoining---and saw something I can't tell.

No man living can do that.

I went to meet her at the plane indicated (=which had been indicated).

They threw into prison all the persons all the persons suspected (=who were suspected).

The prisioner acquitted went home directly.

The matter being investgiated (=that is being investigated) is a military secret.

The work being done (=that was being done ) prevented his from going.

下面词组中各包含一个这样的词
The money spent, the day appointed, the fact alleged, the reason given, the plan suggested, the party interested, the guests invited.

2/如果它用来进行对比:
The visitors coming and going are so numerous.

He is a person revered and beloved.

In many countries, word spoken are different from words written.

3/如果名词是一个不关紧要的词或被修饰的是一个代词:
Those remaining had to wait two days more.

Virtue is a thing unseen.

He is like one charmed.

All involved will be sent to jail.

The point controverted is insignificant.

4/如果名词前有一个形容词最高级或类似的形容词:
This is the most difficult job known.

He is the fattest man living

The chief (or only, one) guest invited was me.

This is the only chance left.

We welcomed every client (or all clients) coming.

Every man arriving received a gift.

5/如果分词和其他词构成固定词组(短语):
I will stay here for the time being.

We danced for two days running.

They were at daggers drawn.

I know the bank concerned.

The votes cast represent their opinion.

There is 20 dollars remaining.

6/如果分词前加sothus
Fish thus (or so) cooked is delicous.

Money thus (or so) earned is money stolen.

7/如果分词是某些特定的词 (这时分词也可以放在名词前面):
He is a poet born (or born poet)

He is a novelist born and bred (or a born and bred novelist).

An artist born and brought up (or a born and brought up artist ) must be different from an ordinary man.

The terms above-metioned (or -cited, -specified,-said, -named) should be carried out.

The person before- (or afore-) metioned died in 1950.

The expected visitor came in the year following at the time appointed.