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考研英汉翻译笔记之分词短语


1/现在分词短语:

现在分词短语必须放在所修饰名词的后面,它相当于一个包含一般时或进行时谓语的从句(完成分词不能这样用):

It is a question puzzling (=that puzzles) many people.

(带有宾语)(比较:It is a puzzling question.)

He was a businessman growing(=that grew ) rich in recent years.

(带有补语)(比较:He is a growing boy.)

The gentleman talking (=who is talking ) so loudly is my uncle.

(带有副词) (比较:Can you read her talking eyes?)

The lady visiting (=who visited) us from time to time taught us French. (带有副词短语)

The girl coming to learn music is only siz years old. (带有不定式作状语)

"Anybody getting up as soon as the cock crows will be rewarded," said my father. (带有状语从句)

2/过去分词短语:

过去分词短语也必须放在所修饰的名词后面,它相当于一个被包含有被动谓语的定语从句,这个谓语可以是完成时态,也可以是一般时态。 若分词是被动进行形式(即由being开头的短语),这个谓语又可以是进行时态。

Dogs cruelly treated (=which have been cruelly treated ) will be vicious. (带有副词)

The woman abandoned (=who had been abandoned) by her husband called on me one day. (带有副词短语)

I drink water boiled (=which has been boiled) at least ten minutes.

Book called (=that are called ) the comics may be harmful to children. (带有补语)

Boys disciplined (=who are disciplined) when they are yong will become good citizens. (带有状语从句)

I shall study the subject being studied (=which is being studied) by so many students. (带有being)

The text-book being used (=which is being used) in this school is "Let Us Learn French". 

c)前面带as的分词

连词as可以用在分词前面

The news as arriving (=The news as it arrives, Such news as arrives( today is not believable. (There may be different news).

The results as proclaimed (=The results as they have been proclaimed, Such results as have been proclaimed) in today's newspaper are encouraging.

His ability as displayed during the last three months was inadequate.

I will tell you a story as told by my mother.

b.作主语补语的分词

现在分词和过去分词都可以用在is,was,grow,feel这类系动词后做补语(亦称表语)。由于它们修饰解释主语,可以称作主语补语:

It is interesting (or charming, astonishing, exciting).(这些表示情绪的现在分词这里用作纯粹的形容词,尽管看起来像谓语动词,却不是谓语动词。)

He was interested (or charmed, astonished,excited). 这些表示情绪的过去分词,这里也是用作纯粹的形容词。)

She is very (or greatly) delighted (or disgusted, concerned, pleased). (带有表示程度的副词)

He felt interested (or charmed, astonished, excited, annoyed, assured ).

He appears (or seems ) pretending (or sparing, unthinking, grasping, forbidding).

It looks decayed (or withered, rotten, sunken).

He remains unsatisfied; the matter remains unsettled and untouched.

His illness continued unchanged.

He became excited (or discouraged).

He got scolded.

He grew tired of life.

The situation proves encouraging.

c.作宾语补语的分词

分词也可用在see,hear,set,make,keep这类宾补动词后,作宾语的补语,修饰或谈及宾语的情况,他们称为宾语补语。它们仍具有动词的特点,可以有宾语、补语及修饰语。另外,如果这些宾补动词表示感官作用,它们可以转变为及物动词,同时现在分词或过去分词可以变成that从句中的谓语动词:

I saw(宾补动词) him(宾语) running(现在分词作宾补) off. (=I saw(及物动词) that he was running or ran(谓语动词) off)

I found(宾补动词) those people(宾语) working(现在分词) hard. (=I found(及物动词) that those people were working or worked(谓语动词) hard.)

They heard her singing.

Did you notice that fellow stealing it?

I saw the thief caught by policemen. (=I saw that the thief was caught by the policemen.)

Do your own yourself defeated?(=Do you own that you have been defeated?)

He declared himself satisfied.

I must see everything done properly.

I found everything changed.

如果宾补动词不表示感官作用,分词则不能变为that从句中的谓语动词:

He left his children playing in the street.

The joke set all of them laughing.

They must keep the pot boiling.

I have kept you waiting a long time.

He sent the ball flying.

They caught him doing evil.

I can't make myself understood.

His actions make him respected, but not his words.

I have a house built on the mountain.

Please get thie luggage carried into the room.

分词也可由being 开始:

He watched the pictures being hung on the wall.

I found myself being looked after by ten servants. (=I found that I was being looked after by ten servants.)

在某些宾补动词后,现在分词前可加连词as:

He described the city as expressing the modern idea of speed.

He quoted Confucius as saying this.

He recorded the movement as beginning a new era.

He accepted me as having seen much of the world.

The results show their lessons as having been neglected.

He looked upon the accident as being caused by a grave misunderstanding.

在个别动词的被动结构后也可带as的分词短语:

The story was told as having happened to himself.

An old man was represented as standing among his sons.

I was given a dictionary as being the best students.

d.作解释性修饰语得分词

作为解释性修饰语,它常常放在主语后面或前面,由逗号把它和主语分开,就像一个作状语的分词一样。但是作状语的分词可以表示时间、原因、条件、让步等,可改为一个状语从句,并修饰谓语动词。作解释性修饰语的分词若说明伴随的情况时,不能变为状语从句,这时对主语的说明多于对谓语的说明。对下面两对句子加以比较,就可看出这两种用法的差别:

Gasping and excited(作状语的分词),Richard aroused suspicion. (=Because he gasped and was excited, Richard aroused suspicion.)

Gasping and excited(作解释性修饰语的分词),Richard arrived home. (Approximately=Richard gasped and was excited when he arived home;或Richard gasped and was excited, and thus he arrived home.)

Not seen by anyone(作状语的分词),David stole the watch. (=As he was not seen by anyone, David stole the watch)

Not seen by anyone(), David ran past. (Approxinately=David was not seen by anyone when he ran past;或David was not seen by anyone, and thus he ran past.)

下面是一些包含有解释性修饰语的句子:

Shivering and greatly ashamed, Lilian lowered her head.

Starving, John wandered about.

Kneeling and shutting her eyes, Mary prayed to the goddess.

Bleeding and fainting, he waited for the ambulance.

Closing the door, he shut out the beggar.

Shouting aloud, he called to me.

Walking along the bank, the poet sang a sorrowful song.

Dressed in while, she suddenly appeared.

Supported by his sons, the old man came out.

这些分词放在主语后时最不强调,放在句末时强调意义最明显

Richard,gasping and excited, arrived home.

David, not seen by anyone, ran past.

Mary, kneeling and shutting her eyes, prayed to the goddess.(只有主语为名词时,分词才可放在它后面,如果是代词,譬如说he,就不能放在这个位置.)