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英语听力小短文名人故事哲学思想家17:Sigmund Freud 西格蒙德·弗洛伊德

Sigmund Freud

西格蒙德·弗洛伊德

Sigmund Freud was born in 1856 in Moravia, which is now the Czech Republic. His family moved to Vienna when Sigmund was four years old. He was the oldest of his mother’s eight children and her favorite. Sigmund loved to read and he was always at the top of his class. He had no interest in sports or outdoor activities, except walking. The family apartment had only four bedrooms, but Sigmund’s mother gave him his own room so he could study in peace. He rarely joined the family for meals. Instead he ate alone in his room, surrounded by his favorite books.

西格蒙德·弗洛伊德于1856年出生于现在的捷克共和国的摩拉维亚。西格蒙德四岁时全家移居到维也纳。在母亲的八个孩子中他是老大,也是母亲最喜爱的孩子。西格蒙德喜欢读书,一直是班里的尖子生。除散步之外,他对其他的体育运动和户外活动都不感兴趣。家里只有四间卧室,但西格蒙德的母亲却给他腾出了单独的一间房,好让他安静地学习。他几乎从不与家人共同进餐,而是单独在自己房里吃饭,与爱书相伴。

Freud first thought about studying law, but then he decided to study medicine. He enrolled at the University of Vienna in 1873. His early days at the university were difficult because some of his classmates discriminated against him because he was Jewish. This made Freud more determined than ever to do his best.

起初,弗洛伊德打算学习法律,但后来他决定学医,并于1873年考入维也纳大学。刚入学时的日子非常难受,班上有些同学因他是犹太人而歧视他,这使弗洛伊德更加坚定决心要全力以赴。

Freud received his medical degree in 1881. For the next few years he continued his laboratory work. After his marriage, Freud opened his own psychiatry practice. He worked with patients who were very depressed or behaved in strange ways. Later, he started to treat patients in a new way, called “psychoanalysis.” Psychoanalysis uses different techniques to help people.

弗洛伊德于1881年获得医学学位,此后的几年,他继续进行自己的实验室研究工作。婚后,弗洛伊德开了自己的神经病诊所,专门治疗精神抑郁或行为异常的病人。后来,他开始用一种称作“心理分析”的新方法治疗病人,这种方法通过采纳各种不同的技术手段来帮助病人。

In 1938, the German army invaded Austria. World War II was beginning, and life became terrible for millions of Jews, including Sigmund Freud. The army burnt many of his books in public and arrested him secretly. Freud needed a miracle to save his life. The miracle came when U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt asked the German army to set him free. They agreed to let Freud leave Austria but they wanted 20,000 pounds sterling (approximately $32,000). A Greek princess who was once a patient of Freud’s paid the money. However, Freud had to sign a paper saying that he was treated well by the German army. Freud signed the paper and added in his own handwriting, “I can most warmly recommend the Gestapo to anyone.” On June 4, 1938, Freud and his family moved to a town near London. Fifteen months later, in September 1939, Freud died at the age of 83.
 

1938年,德国军队入侵奥地利,第二次世界大战爆发,对于几百万犹太人来说,生活变得极其恐怖,西格蒙德·弗洛伊德也在所难免。德军当众烧毁了他的许多书,还把出版这些书的公司也给捣毁了,并秘密逮捕了他。弗洛伊德现在需要奇迹才能挽救他的性命。奇迹真的出现了——美国总统富兰克林·罗斯福出面要求德军释放他。德国方面同意让弗洛伊德离开奥地利,但索要 20, 000英镑(将近32, 000美元)做赎金。弗洛伊德曾经的病人------- 一位希腊公主为他付了钱。但是,弗洛伊德还必须在一个文件上签名,证明他在德军中受到了良好待遇。弗洛伊德签了名,并亲笔补充道:“我可以向任何人、用最热烈的方式推荐盖世太保。” 1938年6月4 日,弗洛伊德和他的一家迁到伦敦附近的一个小镇。15 个月后,即1939年9月,弗洛伊德去世,终年83岁。