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国际救援机构难以在索马里展开救援

更新时间:2011/7/22 12:41:47 来源:本站原创 作者:佚名

The United Nations says it needs to “scale up” relief efforts in two famine-stricken areas of Somalia. But the regions are dominated by the al-Qaida-linked militant group al-Shabab, which has limited the work that international aid groups can do in its territory. Our correspondent looks at how aid agencies are operating in such a hostile environment.

联合国说,它需要向索马里两个遭受饥荒打击的地区逐步增加救援。可是,这些地区受到与基地组织有联系的激进组织沙巴布的控制,该组织对国际救援组织在其地盘内的工作实行了一定的限制。

Al-Shabab hostile to foreign aid organizations

Since al-Shabab took control of south-central Somalia a few years ago, they have had a hostile relationship with foreign aid organizations.

自从沙巴布几年前控制了索马里中南部以来,他们就一直对外国救援机构采取敌视态度。

The militants have accused foreign workers of being spies, have kidnapped some, and even killed some others. They have routinely diverted food and other supplies meant for starving Somalis into their own hands, leaving many foreign donors unwilling to send more aid.

这些激进分子指责外国工作者是间谍,他们绑架甚至杀害了一些救援人员。他们经常把本该发放给饥饿的索马里人的食品和其他供给品扣留在自己手中,从而使许多外国捐助方不愿意向索马里运送更多的援助物资。

So, what can aid agencies do to get access to vulnerable populations under such conditions?

在这种条件下,救援机构究竟怎样做才能接近索马里的饥民呢?

The U.N. children's agency UNICEF has been operating in Somalia without interruption since 1972. And the group recently scored a major victory, by conducting a successful airlift into the town of Baidoa, in Lower Shabelle - an al-Shabab stronghold hit hard by famine.

自从1972年以来,联合国儿童基金会从未中断过在索马里的运作。他们最近取得了一个重大胜利,向下谢贝利州的拜多阿镇成功地实施了一次空运行动,拜多阿镇既是沙巴布组织的一个据点,也是遭受饥荒严重打击的地区。

The shipment contained five tons of supplies, including clean water equipment, and food and medicine to treat malnutrition.

他们这次空运了5吨物资,其中包括清洁水设备和治疗营养不良的食品与药物。

Such a large shipment could not have happened without the approval of al-Shabab. UNICEF chief of communications for Africa services, Shantha Bloemen, said they had to work with the group as a matter of principle.

空运这样一大批物资没有沙巴布组织的批准是不可能的。联合国儿童基金会非洲部联络处负责人布卢门说,他们不得不与这个激进组织打交道。

“So yes, there was dialogue with local authorities, and obviously they include members of al-Shabab," said Shantha Bloemen. "But the bottom line is that we succeeded in getting those supplies in. Our staff were able to go to the airport and secure the materials and get it out to the people that need it.”

布卢门说:“是的,我们与地方当局进行了对话,显然他们当中也有沙巴布的成员。但是最重要的一点是,我们成功地把这些物资运到当地。我们的工作人员能够前往机场,保护这些物资的安全,然后把它们运送给需要救援的人。”

Ban on airlifts lifted

Al-Shabab recently lifted a ban on airlifts. The move will allow organizations that have relied mainly on ground transportation to send more supplies more quickly, at a time when it is needed most.

沙巴布最近解除了一项对空运的禁令。这使那些过去主要依赖地面运输的组织,在饥民最需要食品的时候,能够更快地向他们运送更多的食品。

UNICEF is focusing on treating acute malnutrition in children, which has increased to rates around 50 percent in some parts of the region. But the agency has remained cautious, and cannot say that airlifts will continue unabated.

联合国儿童基金会正在集中消除儿童营养不良症。在这个地区的某些地方,严重营养不良的儿童比例已增至50%左右。不过,儿童基金会仍然持谨慎的态度。他们说,不能确定空运会像现在这样一直进行下去。

“I think we are just testing the waters as we go, and obviously we believe strongly that we have to do whatever we can to meet the kids' needs," said Bloemen. "So, we are looking at every avenue at the moment, at how we get more support in, obviously, without compromising our ability to operate.”

布卢门说:“我认为,我们是在实干当中试验。我们坚信,我们必须竭尽全力来满足儿童的需求。因此,我们正在考虑各种途径,考虑我们如何能在不牺牲自己运作能力的条件下获得更多的支持。”

Once aid organizations like UNICEF get their materials on the ground, they rely on local, Somali partners to distribute food or medicine or other supplies.

联合国儿童基金会这样的机构一旦得到救援物资,就要依赖索马里当地的救援机构发放食品、药物或其他物资。

Mohamed Omar works with the Peace and Environmental Development Concern Organization (PEDCO) in the Bakool region.

穆罕迈德.奥玛尔为索马里巴科勒地区的关注和平与环境发展组织工作。

"Most local humanitarian aid agencies use local residents to operate," he said. "We tell al-Shabab this is what we want to do in a certain area. If you contact them directly they will help you with the facilitation, but sometimes they warn you from receiving aid from certain aid organizations. There are some aid organization they do not want, like the U.N. Development Program, and others which were banned.”

He says the aid agencies use local residents. They tell al-Shabab what they want to do, and where, and the group helps with facilitating the delivery. But, sometimes they will also warn you about receiving aid from certain organizations, like the U.N. Development Program, and others that are banned.

他说,救援机构使用当地的居民。他们首先要告诉沙巴布组织他们想干什么和在哪里干,然后,该组织协助他们分发救援物资。不过,有时候沙巴布组织会警告你不要接收某些救援机构的物资,例如联合国开发计划署以及被禁止的其他救援机构。

While Omar was willing to speak about working with the militant group, other aid workers in the area would not discuss their relationship, fearing it could compromise their work.

尽管奥玛尔愿意将他与这个激进组织共事的经历说出来,但该地区的其他救援工作者却不愿意讨论他与激进组织的关系,担心这样会危害他们的工作。

International Crisis Group Somalia expert Rashid Abdi says al-Shabab's decision to allow aid does not represent an ideological shift.

国际危机组织的索马里问题专家阿比迪说,沙巴布允许运送救援物资的决定并不代表该组织在意识形态方面的转变。

“I think what has happened is that the situation has become so grave and so dire that al-Shabab had no other choice but to basically allow in aid agencies, simply because they had no means to provide sustenance for the people," said Abdi.

阿比迪说:“我认为,这是由于局势过于严峻和悲惨,沙巴布除了基本上允许救援机构进入之外别无选择。因为他们没有任何办法向人们提供食物。”

Abdi said al-Shabab has received a lot of pressure from clan leaders and local communities who have blamed the group for the food crisis.

阿比迪说,沙巴布组织受到部落领导人和当地社区的很大压力,这些人认为该组织应为这场食品危机负责。

But until a strong central government can regain control of south-central Somalia, aid groups will still have to go through al-Shabab. And there is no guarantee they will not go back to hijacking supplies.

可是,在一个强大的中央政府恢复对索马里中南部的控制之前,救援机构仍然不得不和沙巴布打交道。也没有人能保证,这个激进组织不会故伎重演,劫持救援物资。

With 3.7 million people affected by the crisis, nearly half the Somali population, many organizations believe they have no choice but to risk working with al-Shabab.

索马里有370万人受到这场食品危机的影响,这个数字接近索马里人口的半数。在这种局面下,许多组织相信,他们除了冒险与沙巴布组织打交道之外别无选择。

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