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布宜诺斯艾利斯地下的神秘隧道

更新时间:2018/2/10 12:25:29 来源:本站原创 作者:佚名

The mysterious tunnels beneath Buenos Aires
布宜诺斯艾利斯地下的神秘隧道

In 1985, Jorge Eckstein, long-time resident of Buenos Aires’ historical San Telmo neighbourhood, purchased an abandoned mansion near his home that he intended to transform into a restaurant.

1985年,布宜诺斯艾利斯(Buenos Aires)历史悠久的圣特尔莫(San Telmo)区的老居民豪尔赫·埃克斯坦(Jorge Eckstein)买下了他家附近的一栋废弃的宅邸,打算改成一家餐馆。

Built in 1830, the mansion was grand but dilapidated. It was what many Argentines refer to as a ‘casa chorizo’ – so named because the rooms of the house are lined up in a row like a string of sausages, opening onto a series of side patios. Eckstein knew the house would need a lot of work; the walls were crumbling and the ground floor was covered in debris.

这座宅邸建于1830,虽宏伟壮观但年久失修。它是许多阿根廷人所称的"香肠房",因为房子里的房间像香肠成串排列,每个房门都通向一个侧边露台。埃克斯坦知道需要对这所房子进行大规模整修:墙壁摇摇欲坠,底层也被废墟掩埋。

Not long after Eckstein began to renovate, he noticed something unusual about the foundation of the house, and it wasn’t long before one of the patios was sinking. It turned out that Eckstein had stumbled onto what would become one of the city’s most important archaeological sites: a portal to an underground labyrinth.

翻修工作开始不久,埃克斯坦就注意到房子的地基有些异样;又过了不久,一个露台开始下陷。事实证明,埃克斯坦偶然发现了这座城市最重要的一处考古遗址:通往地下迷宫的入口。

The idea of a mysterious underground world has long been a subject of interest and imagination in Buenos Aires. “The old myths about the existence of a great swarm of tunnels under the city come back to life again and again,” said Ricardo Orsini, coordinator at the city’s Interpretive Centre for Archaeology and Palaeontology.

很久以来,布宜诺斯艾利斯就在关注和想象一个神秘的地下世界。该市考古学及古生物学展示中心的协调员里卡多·奥西尼(Ricardo Orsini)说:"人们一再重提本市地下存在大型隧道群的古老传说。"

After Eckstein discovered the sinking patio, a team of archaeologists from the University of Buenos Aires investigated the building’s foundation to learn more about its history. The 20-room mansion had been abandoned in the late 1800s when its occupants fled from the deathly waves of yellow fever sweeping through the Argentine city. In the early 20th Century, the mansion served as tenement housing, but by the 1980s, it was abandoned once again.

当埃克斯坦发现露台下陷的情况后,布宜诺斯艾利斯大学的一队考古学家研究了这座建筑物的地基,想更多地了解它的历史。十九世纪晚期,当致命的黄热病席卷这座阿根廷城市时,房子的主人逃走了,丢弃了这座有20个房间的宅邸。二十世纪初,这座宅邸一度作为廉租房使用,但在二十世纪八十年代被再次弃用。

"The decision to dig under the whole building marked a dramatic change in our local concept of recovering the past," Eckstein said, "because it revealed not only the past that appears on the surface, but the past that existed under all the buildings."

埃克斯坦说:"决定在整栋建筑下方进行挖掘,标志着我们当地对于发现过去的观念有了重大转变,因为它揭示的不仅是表面上的过去,还有存在于所有建筑物下面的过去。"

Under the house, the archaeological team discovered an unusual vaulted construction, which further excavations revealed as the roof of an underground tunnel. But a tunnel leading to where? And for what purpose? These were the questions the archaeologists explored as they uncovered almost 2km of subterranean passageways. Their research revealed that the old house sat on top of an intricate drainage system. It seemed that neighbourhood residents built the tunnels around 1780 to reroute a stream that caused flooding when it rained, bringing a flow of dirty water – including animal waste from farms on the outskirts of town – onto the city streets.

考古队在这所房子下面发现了一个罕见的穹顶结构,进一步开挖表明,它是一个地下隧道的顶部。但是,这个隧道通向哪里?又是做什么用的呢?这正是考古学家们在发现了将近2公里长的地下通道时思索的问题。他们的研究表明,这座老房子下面有一个错综复杂的排水系统。似乎是在1780年前后,由于下雨时街道上污水横流,其中还夹杂着来自城郊农场的动物粪便,当地居民便修建了这条隧道,用来使污水改道。

Today, the mansion – now the El Zanjón de Granados museum – acts as the entryway to the refurbished tunnels while also housing exhibitions that showcase objects found during the excavation. Standing inside one of the tunnels, I wouldn’t have guessed that these broad passageways were used for such a practical purpose. They’re eerily romantic; lined with exposed brick, they’ve been beautifully restored and illuminated.

今天,这座宅邸——如今的格雷纳多别墅博物馆(El Zanjón de Granados museum),不但是整修后隧道的入口,还陈列着挖掘过程中发现的物品。当我站在一条隧道中时,无法想象这些宽敞的通道曾有如此实际的用途。这里经过了很好的翻修,用裸露的砖块作内衬,还加装了照明设施,有种神秘的浪漫气氛。

While the discovery of the tunnels was a surprise to Eckstein, it wasn’t news for some of San Telmo’s older residents. Several of his neighbours remembered when segments of the dried-out tunnels were still open; no-one seems to know when and why they were closed off.

发现隧道对埃克斯坦来说是一个惊喜,但对圣特尔莫的一些老人来说却并不新鲜。有几个邻居还记得,干涸的隧道区段当年是敞开的,但似乎没人知道是什么时候和为什么封闭的。

Until relatively recently, confirms Daniel Schávelzon – who led the excavation at El Zanjón de Granados and is now the founder and director of the city’s Centre for Urban Archaeology – any knowledge about the city’s underground passages was based on memory and word of mouth.

直到最近,曾领导格雷纳多别墅的开挖工作,现任该市城市考古中心创始人兼总监的丹尼尔·沙瓦尔宗(Daniel Schávelzon)才证实,对该市地下通道的任何了解都是基于回忆和口述。

“Since I was a student, I was interested in the underground world,” Schávelzon told me. “But everything I heard or read didn’t make sense. It was all myth and fantasy. Nobody was doing serious work. Later, when I was working in the field of urban archaeology, I myself became seriously involved in the subject. And I found underground constructions of all kinds. It’s fascinating.”

沙瓦尔宗告诉我:"我从学生时代起就对这个地下世界感兴趣。""但是,不管是我听说的还是书里写的,全都讲不通,都是传说和想象。没人在做认真的研究。后来,当我在城市考古领域工作时,我自己开始认真地参与这个课题。我发现了各种各样的地下结构。很让人着迷。"

Founded in 1536, San Telmo is the oldest part of the original settlement of Buenos Aires, and it’s here that many of the city’s underground tunnels are concentrated. But not all the tunnels were built for plumbing purposes. More than a century before the residents of San Telmo rerouted a stream, Jesuit priests were busy at work on another set of tunnels.

圣特尔莫始建于1536年,是布宜诺斯艾利斯最早的定居点中最古老的地区,该市的许多地下隧道都集中在这里。然而,并非所有隧道都是为起管道作用而建造的。比圣特尔莫的居民让水流改道还要早一个多世纪的时候,耶稣会的牧师们在忙着修建另外一系列隧道。

In the late 16th Century, a Jesuit order from Spain settled in Buenos Aires with the intention of spreading Christianity to the New World. They established a mission consisting of a church, a museum, a library and even a pharmacy – a complex known today as the Manzana de las Luces (Block of Enlightenment).

十六世纪晚期,一个来自西班牙的耶稣会教团定居在布宜诺斯艾利斯,想把基督教传播到这个新世界。他们建立了一个由教堂、博物馆、图书馆甚至药房组成的使团,一个今天被称为启蒙区(Manzana de las Luces)的建筑群。

But the Jesuits weren’t exactly welcome in their new home – the region’s indigenous populations strongly resisted the priests’ attempts to convert them to Christianity. As conflict brewed, the Jesuits took steps to ensure their safety.

然而,耶稣会士在他们的新家园并不受欢迎 - 该地区的原住民强烈抵制牧师们让他们改信基督教的企图。随着冲突的酝酿,耶稣会士们采取措施来确保自己的安全。

According to Schávelzon’s research, the tunnels beneath the Manzana de las Luces were likely one part of a much larger (and unfinished) plan to connect the city’s churches to allow priests and their congregations to escape in the event of an attack. “It was a defensive project,” Schávelzon explained, “similar to what we’ve seen in Lima [Peru] and in other cities in which there’s no fort, no walls or cliffs. In case of an attack, the only way out is an underground escape.”

沙瓦尔宗的研究表明,启蒙区下面的隧道很可能是一个更大的(未完成)计划的一部分,目的是连接该市的教堂,以便在发生袭击时供教士和会众们逃离。沙瓦尔宗解释说:"这是一个防御工程,就像我们在利马(秘鲁)这种没有堡垒,没有高墙,也没有悬崖的城市里看到的那样。万一发生袭击,地下出口是逃走的唯一办法。"

Even the experts don’t know the extent of the Jesuits’ network. In 1767, after failing to convert the indigenous population, the Jesuits abandoned their mission in Buenos Aires, heading inland to establish other missions near the border of Paraguay. The Spanish colonists who remained repurposed the mission buildings for their own use, establishing the Royal College of San Carlos and Argentina’s first national library in their place (both establishments are no longer here). And the Jesuits didn’t leave behind blueprints. “There is very little written documentation,” Schávelzon told me. “It was meant to be a secret.”

就连专家们也不知道,这个耶稣会士网络的范围究竟有多大。1767年,当改变当地原住民信仰的计划失败后,耶稣会士们放弃了布宜诺斯艾利斯的使团,向内陆进军,在巴拉圭边界附近建立了另一个使团。仍驻留在当地的西班牙殖民者将使团的建筑收归己用,改变了用途,在原地建起了皇家圣卡洛斯学院和阿根廷第一个国家图书馆(这两家机构目前已不在此地)。耶稣会士们没有留下蓝图。沙瓦尔宗告诉我:"几乎没有书面文件。这原本就是个秘密。"

The Jesuit tunnels remained hidden for nearly 150 years, until 1912, when, amid renovations for an architectural school that was operating inside the Manzana de las Luces complex, the floor started collapsing beneath workers’ feet.

耶稣会士隧道在近150年里无人知晓,直到1912年,位于启蒙区建筑群内的一所建筑学校进行装修时,工人脚下的地面开始坍塌。

A small section of the tunnel is accessible to the public on a guided tour. In comparison to the spacious tunnels beneath El Zanjón de Granados, the narrow, stone Jesuit tunnels feel rudimentary. Visitors walk single file through the dimly lit passageway, stooping to avoid bumping their heads on the low-arching ceilings.

公众可以在导游的陪同下参观一小段隧道。与格雷纳多别墅下面的宽敞隧道相比,耶稣会士的石砌隧道狭窄而简陋。游客们排成一列穿过光线昏暗的通道,弯腰躲避低矮的拱顶以免碰头。

While some experts believe the passageways beneath El Zanjón de Granados and Manzana de las Luces were once a part of a more extensive tunnel system, the theory is hard to prove. If a larger network existed, much of it has been lost to time. In recent decades, construction crews working on unrelated projects, like the expansion of the subway, have uncovered, and bulldozed through, subterranean structures that could have been part of that larger network.

有些专家认为,格雷纳多别墅和启蒙区下方的通道曾经属于一个更大的隧道系统,但这个理论难以证实。如果真的存在过一个更大的网络,它的大部分也已经在时光中消逝了。近几十年来,在地铁扩建工程等无关项目中被施工人员发现并铲平的地下结构就有可能是这个大型网络的一部分。

“Unfortunately,” Orsini said, “archaeology did not always arrive in time to study all these architectural structures built underground. This is a metropolis in permanent development, and for a long time we lacked a legal framework to protect and preserve our archaeological heritage.” A remedial law passed in 2003 helped, “but the losses we’ve suffered are irreversible,” he said.

奥西尼说:"不幸的是,考古人员往往不能及时到达现场去研究所有的地下建筑结构。这是一个不断发展的大都市,而且我们在很长一段时间里缺乏保护和保存考古遗产的法律框架。"他说,2003年通过的一项补救法案起到了作用,"但我们遭受的损失是不可逆转的。"

The mysteries surrounding the tunnels continue to fascinate the public, and stories of undiscovered tunnels still pop up in the news from time to time: in 2000, long-time professors at Fernando Fader Technical School, located in the Flores neighbourhood 9km west of the Manzana de las Luces, recalled an old tunnel that once connected the building’s basement to the nearby Flores train station. An archaeological team found an underground chamber, but no tunnel. Yet to this day, the professors insist that it existed.

隧道的奥秘继续吸引着公众,关于未发现的隧道的报道不时见诸报端:2000年,位于启蒙区以西九公里处的弗洛雷斯区(Flores)的费尔南多·法代技术学校(Fernando Fader Technical School)的老教授们回忆说,学校大楼的地下室曾有一条旧隧道通往近旁的弗洛雷斯火车站。考古队找到了一个地下室,但没有隧道。但教授们至今仍坚持认为隧道存在过。

Archaeology is the study of human history. But human recollection is part of the record, too. When the tunnels beneath El Zanjón de Granados were discovered, an elderly neighbour named Anastasio expressed delight, but not surprise. He said he always knew about the tunnels: he used to play in them as a child.

考古学是对人类历史的研究。但人类的回忆也是记录的一部分。当发现格雷纳多别墅下面的隧道时,一个名叫阿纳斯塔西奥(Anastasio)的老邻居表示高兴,但并不意外。他说他一直知道隧道的事,他小时候经常在里面玩。

“Por fin los encontraron!” (“They finally found them!”) he exclaimed.

"他们终于找到了!"他惊叹道。

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