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【简要新闻】读书好还是听书好 Better to read or better

来源:慢速英语   时间:2019-12-12 16:04:08

We often think how fast we learn something is a function of how smart we are.If your brain is soaking in material quickly,you're intelligent;if not,well,that doesn't say great things about your IQ.But science shows context and technique actually play a huge role in how fast we learn,and even small changes—like the format you use to read—can make a huge difference.


我们经常认为我们学东西的速度取决于我们有多聪明。如果你的大脑很快就沉浸在物质中,你就很聪明;如果不是,那么,这并不能说明你的智商有多高。但科学表明,环境和技术实际上对我们学习的速度起着巨大的作用,即使是小的变化-像你用来阅读的格式-也会产生巨大的变化。


Audiobooks have plenty of advantages;you can enjoy them anywhere,even in the car,and not printing books saves trees.Less fluent readers also often find them more accessible and absorbing.But according to the latest research,if your goal isn't to pass the time in traffic or on the treadmill,but instead to learn something difficult,you should definitely choose a physical book.


有声读物有很多优点,你可以在任何地方享受它们,即使是在车里,而不印刷书籍可以节省树木。不太流利的读者也常常发现他们更容易接触和吸引人。但是根据最新的研究,如果你的目标不是在交通和跑步机上消磨时间,而是为了学习一些困难的东西,你应该选择一本实体书籍。

In a recent opinion piece in the New York Times,psychology professor Daniel T.Willingham cited a 2010 study where 48 students either read or listened to an article about child psychology.Although the students spent the same amount of time with their material and did about the same number of distracting activities while they absorbed the information,they scored very differently on a 10-item quiz later:On average,the readers scored 81 percent whereas the listeners scored 59 percent.


在《纽约时报》最近的一篇评论文章中,心理学教授DT引用了2010年的一项研究,研究中48名学生阅读或听一篇关于儿童心理学的文章。当吸收信息的时候,尽管学生们在材料上花费相同的时间,并且做相同数量的精力分散活动,但他们在随后的10项测验后得分差别很大:平均而言,读者得分为81%而听众得分为59%。


The difference between 81 percent and 59 percent is the difference between a B-and an F,so that's not small potatoes.Why does listening versus reading material have such a massive impact on learning?


81%和59%之间的差别是B和F之间的差别,所以这不是小问题。为什么听和读材料对学习有如此巨大的影响?


Willingham explains two factors are likely at play.First,most of us read more slowly than we listen(especially when pausing and rereading is factored in),and when you're trying to absorb new information,slower tends to be better."About 10 to 15 percent of eye movements during reading are actually regressive—meaning[the eyes are]going back and re-checking,"he explained to TIME."This happens very quickly,and it's sort of seamlessly stitched into the process of reading a sentence."


Willingham解释道,有两个因素可能起作用。首先,我们大多数人的阅读速度比听的慢(特别是当停顿和重读被考虑在内时),当你试图吸收新的信息时,慢点会更好。“在阅读过程中,大约10%到15%的眼球运动实际上是倒退的-这意味着(眼睛)会返回并重新检查,”他向《时代》杂志解释道。“这种情况发生得非常快,而且在读句子的过程中也是无缝的。”


Second,books offer visual cues that help our brains organize and understand new information.Things like chapter breaks,subheadings,and lists aid us in making sense of the material and understanding how it fits together.You lose all that when you go the audio route.


其次,书籍提供视觉线索,帮助我们的大脑组织和理解新信息。分章,副标题和列表之类的东西有助于我们理解材料并理解它如何组合在一起。当你采用音频方式时,你会失去这些东西。


The bottom line is simple:Don't feel guilty about passing your commute with an audiobook—that's certainly preferable to spending it swearing at some jerk who just cut you off.However,be aware of audio's limitations when it comes to studying,and seriously consider opting for good old-fashioned reading instead.


最重要的是:不要因为使用有声读物来通勤而感到愧疚-这比把时间花在咒骂打断你思路的混蛋声中度过更为可取。但是,要注意音频在学习方面的局限性,并认真考虑选择好的老式阅读。


In fact,you might want to go even one more step more old fashioned still and actually opt for a physical book over your iPad or Kindle.Another recent study out of Norway found that those who read a story from a book remembered details and the order of events better than those who read in on a screen.Yet more research showed those using screens read faster and were more confident in their comprehension,but actually performed worse on a quiz after.This could be due to Willingham's second point:e-readers give you some visual cues,but not as many as a paper book.It's not as easy to know how far along you are,for example.


事实上,你可能还想再走一步,在iPad或Kindle上选择一本实体书。挪威最近的另一项研究发现,那些从一本书中读到故事的人比那些在屏幕上读故事的人更能记住细节和事件的顺序。然而,更多的研究表明,那些使用屏幕的人阅读速度更快,对自己的理解更有信心,但在测试之后的表现却更差。这可能是由于威灵汉的第二点:电子阅读器给你一些视觉暗示,但没有纸质书那么多。例如,要知道你走了多远并不容易。


This science isn't yet conclusive,but it appears that audio and print each have their place.If you want to get some light reading in during a commute or a workout,obviously opt for audio.But if you want to make it as easy as possible to learn something hard,you might want to try reading like it's 1999.Opt for the most old-fashioned option of all,a straight up paper book,and you might be surprised how fast you grasp the material.


这门科学至今没有定论,但看起来有声阅读和书面阅读都有自己的位置。如果你想在上下班或锻炼期间轻松阅读,显然选择有声阅读。但是如果你想尽可能的让复杂的知识容易吸收,你可以想尝试一下就像1999年的阅读。最老式的选择,一本直接的纸质书,你可能会为你掌握材料信息的快速而惊讶。


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【简要新闻】人越长大时间过得越快 The faster people grow, the faster

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