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【科技报道】海洋生物看不到眼睛 Sea Creature Sees Without Eyes

来源:慢速英语   时间:2020-01-10 16:30:54

A relative of starfish does not have eyes, but can still see. That information comes from scientists who studied sea creatures in the coral reefs of the Caribbean and Gulf of Mexico.


海星的亲戚没有眼睛,但仍然可以看到。该信息来自研究加勒比海和墨西哥湾珊瑚礁中海洋生物的科学家。


The researchers reported this month that the starfish relative -- called the red brittle star -- is only the second creature known to be able to see without having eyes. This ability is called extraocular vision.


研究人员本月报道说,被称为红色脆星的海星亲戚只是已知的第二只能够看见而没有眼睛的生物。这种能力称为眼外视力。


The other creature said to have extraocular vision is a kind of sea urchin.


据说具有眼外视力的另一种生物是一种海胆。


Brittle stars, with five arms extending from a central disk, are part of a group of marine life called echinoderms. They have a nervous system but no brain.


脆弱的恒星,从中央圆盘伸出五个臂,是称为棘皮动物的一组海洋生物的一部分。他们有神经系统,但没有大脑。


The red brittle star measures up to about 35 centimeters wide, from the end of one arm to the other. It lives in bright and complex environments. Because of the possibility of being eaten by fish, the creature hides during daylight hours.


从一只手臂的末端到另一只手臂,红色的脆性星长约35厘米。它生活在明亮而复杂的环境中。由于可能被鱼吞食,因此该生物在白天隐藏。

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The red brittle star possesses extraocular vision as a result of light-sensing cells, called photoreceptors. These photoreceptors cover its body and chromatophores, the cells responsible for pigment or coloring.


红色的脆性恒星由于被称为感光器的感光细胞而具有眼外视觉。这些感光器覆盖其身体和染色体,负责色素或着色的细胞。


During daytime, the chromatophores narrow the field of light being detected, making each photoreceptor like the pixel of a computer image. When combined with other pixels, the image becomes complete.


在白天,色谱仪使检测到的光场变窄,使每个感光体像计算机图像的像素一样。当与其他像素组合时,图像变得完整。


The visual system does not work at night, when the chromatophores contract in size.


当色谱的尺寸缩小时,视觉系统无法在夜间运行。


Laboratory experiments suggested that the brittle stars have very simple vision. Placed in a circular environment, for example, they moved toward walls that were white with a black bar, suggestive of a daytime hiding place.


实验室实验表明,脆性恒星的视力非常简单。例如,它们放置在圆形环境中,朝带有黑条的白色墙壁移动,这暗示了白天的藏身之处。


Lauren Sumner-Rooney is a research fellow at the Oxford University Museum of Natural History. She led the study, which appeared in the publication Current Biology.


Lauren Sumner-Rooney是牛津大学自然历史博物馆的研究员。她领导了这项研究,该研究发表在《当代生物学》杂志上。


"If our conclusions about the chromatophores are correct, this is a beautiful example of innovation in evolution," she said.


她说:“如果我们对色谱的结论是正确的,那么这就是进化创新的一个很好的例子。”


Sumner-Rooney added, "It's such an alien concept for us, as very visually driven animals, to conceive of how an animal might see its habitat without eyes, but now we know of two examples."


萨姆纳·鲁尼补充说:“对于我们来说,作为视觉驱动的动物,这是一个陌生的概念,它可以想象动物如何在没有眼睛的情况下看到其栖息地,但现在我们知道了两个例子。”


重点词汇:

Words in This Story:

coral reef – n. a rocky, underwater area formed by the growth of coral

extraocular – n. taking place outside the eye

species – n. a group of living organisms made up of similar individuals

detect – v. to identify or discover

pixel - n. any one of the very small dots that together form the picture on a television screen or computer monitor

contract – v. to decrease in size; shrink

innovation - n. the act or process of introducing new ideas, devices, or methods

evolution – n. the development of something, from a simple to a more complex form

conceive - v. to think of or create (something) in the mind


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