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【科技报道】科学家:2019年海洋水温有史以来最热 Scientists: 2019 Ocean Water Temperatures Were Hottest Ever

来源:慢速英语   时间:2020-01-16 16:10:30

Scientists reported this week that the world's oceans were warmer in 2019 than they had ever been before.


科学家本周报告说,2019年世界海洋比以往任何时候都更温暖。


The report comes at a time when studies have linked rising ocean water temperatures to manmade pollution. Researchers say the rate of warming is speeding up and may cause a planet-wide disaster.


该报告是在研究将海水温度升高与人为污染联系起来的时候发布的。研究人员说,升温速度正在加快,并可能导致整个地球的灾难。


The oceans take in more than 90 percent of the extra heat created by carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gas emissions. Greenhouse gases are a product of pollution from factories, driving motor vehicles and other human activities.


海洋吸收了二氧化碳和其他温室气体排放所产生的额外热量的90%以上。温室气体是工厂,驾驶汽车和其他人类活动造成的污染的产物。


Scientists are able to measure the rate of global warming when they compare current ocean water temperatures with those measured over the past few years.


科学家们可以将当前的海水温度与过去几年的温度进行比较,从而测量出全球变暖的速度。


For a better understanding of ocean warmth, scientists from around the world studied records shared by China's Institute of Atmospheric Physics (IAP). They found that the latest water temperature was 0.075 degrees Celsius higher than the average temperature from 1981 to 2010. Their findings were published in the scientific journal Advances in Atmospheric Sciences.


为了更好地了解海洋温暖,世界各地的科学家研究了中国大气物理研究所(IAP)共享的记录。他们发现最新的水温比1981年至2010年的平均温度高0.075摄氏度。他们的发现发表在科学杂志《大气科学进展》上。


Effects of warmer oceans


海洋变暖的影响


The scientists pointed to the many extreme weather events of 2019 as one effect of warmer oceans. They added that warmer water also endangers some sea creatures and causes higher sea levels.


科学家指出,2019年的许多极端天气事件是海洋变暖的影响之一。他们补充说,温暖的水也危害一些海洋生物并引起更高的海平面。


Lijing Cheng is with the International Center for Climate and Environmental Sciences at the IAP. He also was the lead author of a paper on the study. He says the heat the oceans have taken in to make the temperature change amounts to 228 Zetta Joules (228 billion trillion Joules) of energy.


程丽静(音译)在IAP国际气候与环境科学中心任职。他还是该研究论文的主要作者。他说,海洋吸收的热量使温度变化达到228 Zetta焦耳(2280万亿焦耳)。


"That's a lot of zeros indeed," he said. "To make it easier to understand, I did a calculation... The amount of heat we have put into the world's oceans in the past 25 years equals to 3.6 billion Hiroshima atom-bomb explosions."


他说:“确实有很多零。” “为了更容易理解,我做了一个计算……在过去的25年中,我们投入世界海洋的热量相当于36亿个广岛原子弹爆炸。”


One hundred hair dryers per person


每人一百个吹风机


Michael Mann is director of the Earth System Sciences Center at Penn State University in the United States. He says the energy that caused the warming is equal to "everyone on the planet running a hundred hairdryers or a hundred microwaves continuously for the entire year." He spoke to the French news agency AFP.


迈克尔·曼(Michael Mann)是美国宾夕法尼亚州立大学地球系统科学中心的主任。他说,导致变暖的能量等于“地球上每个人连续运行一百个吹风机或一百个微波炉”。他向法国新闻社法新社发表讲话。

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The past five years are the five hottest years for the ocean since scientists began keeping records, the study found.


研究发现,过去五年是自科学家开始保存记录以来海洋最热的五年。


John Abraham is a co-author of the paper. He said it is important to "understand how fast things are changing. The key to answering this question is in the oceans -- that's where the vast majority of heat ends up. If you want to understand global warming, you have to measure ocean warming."


约翰·亚伯拉罕(John Abraham)是该论文的合著者。他说,“了解事物的变化速度是很重要的。回答这个问题的关键是在海洋中-那是绝大多数热量最终聚集的地方。如果您想了解全球变暖,则必须测量海洋变暖”。


Abraham is a professor of mechanical engineering at the University of St. Thomas in Minnesota.


亚伯拉罕(Abraham)是明尼苏达州圣托马斯大学的机械工程教授。


Target limit to global warming


限制全球变暖的目标


In 2015, world leaders signed the Paris Agreement as part of efforts to limit climate change. The agreement took effect the following year. It aims to limit global temperature increases to "well below" 2 degrees Celsius, and to 1.5 degrees Celsius if at all possible.


2015年,世界各国领导人签署了《巴黎协定》,作为限制气候变化努力的一部分。该协议于次年生效。它旨在将全球温度上升限制在“远低于” 2摄氏度的范围内,并尽可能限制在1.5摄氏度以下。


There has been about 1 degree Celsius of warming since the start of the Industrial Revolution 200 years ago. Yet the result of rising water temperatures is not evenly spread in the world's oceans. The report says that warmer temperatures are partly to blame for heavy rainfall in Indonesia and the drying of Australia, leading to wildfires in Australia and the Amazon.


自200年前工业革命开始以来,全球变暖约1摄氏度。然而,水温上升的结果并未在世界海洋中平均分布。该报告说,印尼的暴雨和澳大利亚的干旱是造成气温升高的部分原因,导致澳大利亚和亚马逊地区发生野火。


Hope remains


希望依然存在


Mann explained that there is still hope for the climate to recover from this temperature increase. "If we stop warming the planet, heat will continue to diffuse down into the deep ocean for centuries until eventually stabilizing."


曼恩解释说,气温的上升仍有望使气候恢复。 “如果我们停止使地球变暖,那么热量将继续扩散到深海,持续数个世纪,直到最终稳定下来。”


重点词汇:

Words in This Story:

global – adj. worldwide; relating to the whole world

journal – n. a magazine or other publication

author – n. a writer of a report or book

joule – v. a measurement of work or energy

calculation – n. a mathematical estimate of the size of something

key – n. a solution or answer; a thing that provides a way of understanding something

diffuse – v. spread out

stabilize – v. to stop quickly changing


链接:

丰田将建造“未来之城”以测试新技术 Toyota to Build ‘City

NASA观察员在“可居住区域”中发现了地球大小的世界 NASA Observe


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