首页 > VOA慢速英语 > 今日美国 > 科学美国人60秒:高质量的青稞使人们得以定居青藏高原

文章详情

科学美国人60秒:高质量的青稞使人们得以定居青藏高原

来源:慢速英语   时间:2020-05-08 16:56:28

Better Barley Let People Settle Tibetan Plateau

高质量的青稞使人们得以定居青藏高原

The Tibetan Plateau, at an altitude of some 3,000 meters above sea level, is often called the roof of the world. Some prehistoric people tried living there starting about 20,000 years ago. Remains of cooked animals and small-scale hearths show that a few hardy souls did give the harsh region a go, at least temporarily. But they did not stick around.

青藏高原被称为世界屋脊,海拔约3000米高。约从两万年前起,史前人类就试图在那里居住。被烹饪过的动物残骸及小规模的灶台表明,一些坚强勇敢的人确实在这个环境恶劣的地区尝试居住,或者说至少是临时居住过。但他们并未长期逗留。

\Permanent human settlements in the area began about 5,200 years ago. So scientists wanted to know. What changed?

人类在此永久居住约始于5200年前。因此科学家想知道,是什么改变了?

Researchers collected artifacts, animal bones and plant remains from 53 sites. The oldest camps only reached altitudes of about 2,500 meters. And at these sites, millet makes up 98 percent of dietary grain.

研究人员从53个居住点收集了史前古器物、动植物残骸。最古老的扎营地点仅达到海拔2500米高。并且在这些居住点中,粟在人们生活饮食中占98%的比例。

But about 3,600 years a new kind of barley arrived in the region, after being domesticated in the Fertile Crescent that spread from the Persian Gulf to the Nile. The new barley tolerated frost and had a longer growing season. Which means it grew above the 3000 meter markand that people could settle there. Diets at those heights became dominated by the new, hardy barley.

但约3600年前一个新品种的青稞,在从波斯湾传播到尼罗河的新月沃土上被种植后,传播到此地。这种新品青稞,忍受得了霜冻并且拥有更长的生长季。这就意味着,它能在海拔3000米以上生长,而人们就可以在那里定居。这种新的、耐寒青稞使在那种海拔下生存必须的饮食成为可控的。

The findings are in the journal Science. [F. H. Chen et al, Agriculture facilitated permanent human occupation of the Tibetan Plateau after 3600 BP]

这些调查结果出自《科学》杂志。【FH陈等:农业发展促进人类在3600年前后永久定居青藏高原】

The researchers say that the cross-cultural grain exchange from the Fertile Crescent thus appears to be what allowed humans to finally reach the roof of the world.

研究人员表示,这样看来似乎是这种来自新月沃土的跨文化谷物交换,使人类最终得以居住于世界屋脊。