STEVE EMBER: From VOA Learning English, this is THE MAKING OF A NATION – American history in Special English. I’m Steve Ember.
This week in our series, we finish the story of the first thirteen American colonies. We’ll tell about how the southern colonies developed.
Among the southern colonies, the northernmost was Maryland. The king of England, Charles the First, gave the land between Virginia and Pennsylvania to George Calvert in sixteen thirty-two. George Calvert was also known as Lord Baltimore. He wanted to start a colony with greater religious freedoms than existed in England. Calvert was Roman Catholic. Catholics could not openly observe their religion in England. They also had to pay money to the government because they did not belong to the Anglican Church, the Church of England.
George Calvert never saw the colony that was named Maryland. He died soon after he received the documents giving him the land. The land went to his son Cecil Calvert, who became the next Lord Baltimore. He had the power to collect taxes, fight wars, make laws and create courts in Maryland. Cecil named his brother Leonard as the colony's first governor.
Cecil Calvert believed that English Catholics could live in peace in Maryland alongside Protestants. So he urged Catholics in England to move there. To get more settlers, he allowed people to own farms and gave them some power in local politics. Some Catholics did go to Maryland, but not as many as he hoped. Protestants were in the majority. In sixteen forty-nine, Lord Baltimore accepted a Toleration Act passed by the local government. It guaranteed freedom of religion, but only for Christians.
|A painting of George Calvert|
King Charles the Second gave away more land in America in sixteen sixty-three. He gave eight English lords the territory known as Carolina. It extended south from Virginia into Florida, an area controlled by Spain. Spain also claimed the southern part of Carolina.
Spanish, French and English settlers had tried earlier to populate the area. The eight new owners promised forty hectares of land to anyone who would go to Carolina to live. They also promised religious freedom. The first successful Carolina settlers left England in sixteen seventy. They built a town in an area where two rivers met. They called it Charles Town, for King Charles. Spanish ships attacked the port city many times, but the settlers defended their land.
The settlers planted all kinds of crops to see what would grow best. They found that rice was just right for the hot, humid conditions. Also, their cattle and pigs did so well that the Carolina settlers started selling meat to the West Indies. Many of Charles Town's settlers came from Barbados, a port used in the West Indies slave trade. The settlers began buying black slaves to help grow the rice. By seventeen eight, more blacks than whites lived in the southern part of Carolina. The success of the farming economy depended on slave labor.
The northern part of the Carolina colony grew much more slowly than the southern part. Many settlers in the northern part were from neighboring Virginia. Some had left Virginia because people who disagreed with the Anglican Church were not welcome there.
Historians say the area that became North Carolina may have been the most democratic of all the colonies. The people generally did not interfere in each other’s lives. Together, they faced a common enemy: the pirates who made the North Carolina coast their home base.
In sixteen seventy-seven, some of the people in the northern part of the Carolina territory rebelled against England. They did not like England's Navigation Acts. These laws forced people in Carolina to pay taxes to England on goods sold to other colonies. Some northern Carolina settlers refused to pay this tax. These independent thinkers even set up their own government and tried to break free of England. But the English soldiers in the colonies stopped the rebellion by arresting its leader.
There were growing differences between the people of northern Carolina and southern Carolina. Finally the owners of the colony divided it in seventeen twelve, forming what would become the states of North Carolina and South Carolina.
The last English colony founded in the New World was Georgia. It was established in seventeen thirty-two, under King George the Second. Georgia was the idea of a man named James Oglethorpe. He wanted to solve a problem in England involving a growing number of people who could not repay their debts. At that time, debtors were put in prison. This made it impossible for them to earn the money they needed to get out of debt.
Oglethorpe wanted to create a colony where debtors could go instead of going to prison. He wanted it to be a place where people could have good lives while they worked to earn money. But not many debtors wanted to go to Georgia.
The people who did settle there were much like the people in the other colonies. They did not agree with all of Oglethorpe's ideas. They wanted to do things he did not believe were right, like drinking alcohol and owning slaves. In the end the settlers won. They rejected Oglethorpe's ideas about how they should live.
Life was not easy in Georgia. Spaniards and pirates captured ships along the coast. Spain controlled Florida and also claimed Georgia and the Carolinas. Border fights were common. Oglethorpe lost all his money trying to establish Georgia. King George took control of the colony in seventeen fifty-two.
As new colonies were being established nearby, the colony of Virginia was growing. A way of life was developing there that was very different from that of the North. Most people in Virginia at this time were members of the Church of England. Religion was not as important a part of their lives as it was to the people in the North. In the New England colonies, members of the clergy were considered the most important. In the southern colonies, rich land owners were the more important.
People in Virginia did not live in towns, as people did in Massachusetts. They lived along rivers on small farms or on large farms called plantations. Being located on a river made it easy to export goods by ship. Virginians were sending large amounts of tobacco to England. It was the crop that earned them the most money.
But growing tobacco breaks down the soil. After a few years, nothing grew well on land that was planted with tobacco. The farmers had to stop planting anything on the land every few years. That meant they needed a lot of land. They also needed a large work force. So tobacco farmers in Virginia began to buy land -- and workers.
At first, they bought the services of indentured servants, poor people who had no money or jobs. These indentured servants agreed to work for a farmer for a period of four to seven years. After that they were free to work for themselves.
In sixteen nineteen, a Dutch ship brought a group of Africans to Jamestown. They had been kidnapped from their homes by African traders and sold to the ship's captain. He sold them to the Virginia settlers. These first Africans may have been treated like indentured servants. Later, however, colonists decided to keep them as slaves so they would not have to continue paying for workers. Slowly, laws were approved in Virginia that made it legal to keep black people as slaves. By seventeen fifty, there were more Africans in Virginia than any other group.
Indians did not make good slaves because they could run away. The slaves from Africa could not. They had no place to go.
Slavery in the South affected the course of American history. It divided the people and led to a civil war that nearly tore the nation apart. Slavery in the South will be our story next week.
You can find our series online with transcripts, MP3s, podcasts and pictures at www.voanews.cn. You can also follow us on Facebook and Twitter at VOA Learning English. I’m Steve Ember, inviting you to join us again next week for THE MAKING OF A NATION -- American history in VOA Special English.
在南部殖民地中，马里兰是最靠北边的一个。英国国王查理一世1632年将介于维吉尼亚和宾夕法尼亚之间的土地赐给了乔治·卡尔弗特。乔治·卡尔弗特又被称为 巴尔的摩勋爵，是罗马天主教徒。乔治·卡尔弗特希望建立一个殖民地，是因为当时在英国，天主教徒无法公开信教，而且由于他们不属于英国圣公会，所以必须向 政府交钱。
塞西尔·卡尔弗特相信，英国的天主教徒在马里兰可以跟新教徒和睦相处。他因此呼吁天主教徒离开英国。为了吸引更多的定居者，他还让定居者拥有自己的农场， 甚至让他们在地方政治中享有一定的权力。这些措施确实吸引了一些天主教徒，但没有预计的那么多，马里兰还是以新教信徒为主。1649年，巴尔的摩勋爵接受 了当地政府通过的“容忍法案”，保证宗教自由，但是只适用于基督徒。
英国国王查理二世1663年又将维吉尼亚以南、一直延伸到佛罗里达的大片土地赏赐给了英国的八位勋爵。这片土地被称为卡罗来纳。当时，卡罗来纳南部和佛罗 里达地区被西班牙人控制着。在此之前，西班牙、法国和英国人曾试图在那个地区定居，但都没有成功。接受封地的八位英国勋爵为了吸引定居者，不仅允诺给每人 拨地40公顷，而且保证定居者享受宗教自由。卡罗来纳的第一批英国定居者是1670年离开英国的，他们在卡罗来纳两条河流交汇的地方建立了一个小镇，把小镇命名为查理镇。西班牙舰船多次对小镇发动袭击，都被查理镇的居民击退。
卡罗来纳的定居者尝试种植各种粮食，结果发现当地炎热潮湿的土地最适合种植稻米。他们还成功养殖了猪、牛，并开始向西印度群岛销售猪肉和牛肉。查理镇的很 多居民都是从西印度群岛一个进行奴隶交易的港口城镇巴巴多斯来的。他们开始购买黑奴，把他们带到卡罗来纳的农场种植稻米。到1708年，卡罗来纳南部黑人 的人数已经超过了白人，黑奴的工作创造了经济的辉煌。
卡罗来纳北部的发展要比南部慢得多。这个地区的很多定居者都是从北面的维吉尼亚搬来的。他们因为不接受圣公会，在维吉尼亚不受欢迎，所以只好南下，来到卡 罗来纳。历史学家说，后来成为美国北卡罗来纳州的这块地方可能是所有殖民地里最民主的。这里的居民大家互不干涉，和睦相处，一起对付在北卡罗来纳沿海一带 集结的海盗。
乔治亚是1732年在英国国王乔治二世任期内建立的。当时在英国，负债累累的人会被投入大牢，但是这样一来，他们就更没办法赚钱还债了。为了解决这个问 题，一个叫詹姆士·欧格雷梭皮的人提出，与其把这些人送进监狱，不如把他们送到殖民地去，给他们一个重新开始的机会。然而，没有多少欠债的人愿意到乔治亚 去，所以，真正在那里定居的人其实和其他殖民地没有太大的区别。他们不能全盘接受欧格雷梭皮的观点，做了很多欧格雷梭皮认为不应该做的事情，比如喝酒、再比如购买奴隶。不过，最后还是乔治亚的定居者们占了上风。
与此同时，维吉尼亚逐渐壮大，并形成了一种跟北部殖民地截然不同的生活方式。当时，维吉尼亚大部分居民都是英国圣公会成员，宗教对他们来说并不象对北方殖 民者那么重要。在新英格兰，牧师神父是镇里最重要的人物，但是在南方，最显赫的却是有钱的农场主。麻萨诸塞的定居者住在镇里，但是维吉尼亚的定居者却住在 河边的农场里，这样一来，他们就可以很方便地将商品通过水路运出去，当然，最赚钱的还是烟草。
种植烟草会破坏土壤里的很多元素，一块地种过几年烟草，就什么也不长了，所以烟草种植者每隔几年就要换一块土地。这就意味着大量的土地和人手。因此，维吉 尼亚的烟草种植者开始购买土地和工人。他们最初是雇佣那些被称为“契约工”的穷人。根据契约，契约工替农场主干四到七年，然后就可以为自己工作了。 1619年，一艘荷兰船带着一些非洲黑人来到了詹姆斯镇。这些人都是从家乡被绑架来的，船长把他们卖给维吉尼亚定居者。起初，这些黑人的身份跟契约工类 似，但是后来，殖民者为了不再花钱雇人，决定把黑人当作奴隶。印第安人不适合做奴隶，因为他们随时可能逃走，但是黑人不一样，他们无处可去。再后来，维吉 尼亚颁布了法律，使蓄奴合法化。到1750年的时候，黑人已经成了维吉尼亚最大的族群。