Hello, and welcome to As It Is -- VOA’s daily show for people learning American English.
I’m Christopher Cruise in Washington.
Today on the program, we tell about the high economic cost of heavy drinking.
“…a number of people die of alcohol-attributable conditions. And many of those folks die in the prime of their life.”
But first, we have a report on aggression seen in children who drink a lot of soda.
Some Children Who Drink a Lot of Soda Get Aggressive
A new study found evidence of aggressive behavior in children who have four or more servings of soft drinks every day.
一项新研究发现的证据表明，每天饮用 4 瓶或更多软性饮料的孩子存在侵略行为。
Bob Doughty reports.
Information for the study came from the mothers of 3,000 five-year-olds. Researchers asked the women to keep a record of how many servings of soft drinks their children drank over a two-month period. The women were also asked to complete a checklist of their children’s behavior.
这项研究的信息来自 3000 名 5 岁儿童的妈妈。研究人员要求这些女性保留一份她们孩子在 2 个月内饮用多少软性饮料的记录，并要求这些女性完成一项有关她们孩子的行为清单。
The researchers found that 43 percent of the boys and girls drank at least one daily serving of soda. Four percent of the youngsters had four or more sodas to drink every day.
研究人员发现，这些男孩和女孩有 43%每天至少饮用 1 瓶碳酸饮料，4%的孩子每天饮用 4 瓶或更多碳酸饮料。
Shakira Suglia is with Columbia University's Mailman School of Public Health in New York City. She worked on the study with researchers from the University of Vermont and Harvard University School of Public Health. She says they found that children who drank the most soda were more than two times as likely as those who drank no soda to show signs of aggression.
Shakira Suglia 在纽约市哥伦比亚大学梅尔曼公共卫生学院工作。她与佛蒙特大学和哈佛大学公共卫生学院的研究人员一起进行了这项研究。她说，他们发现饮用最多碳酸饮料的儿童所显现的侵略迹象要比不喝碳酸饮料的儿童多两倍。
“For the children who consumed four or more soft drinks per day, we see an association between aggressive behaviors, attention problems and withdrawn behaviors.”
“对于每天摄入 4 瓶或更多软性饮料的儿童，我们发现了它与侵略性行为、注意力问题和孤僻行为的关联。”
The aggressive behaviors included destroying possessions belonging to others, taking part in fights and physically attacking people.
Shakira Suglia says the researchers identified the link after they considered socio-demographic factors like the child’s age and sex. They also considered other possible influences, such as whether the boys and girls were eating sweets or given fruit drinks on a normal day. In addition, the researchers examined parenting styles and other social conditions that might be taking place in the home.
Shakira Suglia 说，研究人员在考虑了儿童的年龄和性别等社会人口学因素后，确定了这种关联。他们还考虑了其他有可能的影响，比如这些男孩和女孩在日常生活中是否食用甜食或果汁类饮料。另外，研究人员调查了父母的教育类型和其他有可能在家里发生的社会情境。
Doctor Suglia says it is not clear why young children who drink a lot of soda have behavior problems.
“We can’t prove that this is a direct cause and effect relationship. Having said that, there are a lot of ingredients in soda, a lot of ingredients that have not been examined in relation to behavior."
A substance often found in soft drinks is caffeine, which helps to make people feel energized. Doctor Suglia suggests that caffeine could be causing the five year olds to be more aggressive.
碳酸饮料中经常发现的一种物质是咖啡因，它会让人们感到亢奋。Suglia 医生指出，可能是咖啡因引起了 5 岁儿童更有侵略性。
The research is part of a larger study called the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study. It follows 5,000 poor mothers and their children in 20 American cities.
这项研究是更大的一项课题的一部分，称作“脆弱家庭和儿童行为研究”。它在 20 个美国城市跟进了 5000 名贫困母亲和她们的孩子。
Earlier studies of young adults have found the highest sugar levels in those who carry weapons and show signs of negative social behavior.
I’m Bob Doughty.
The High Cost to the American Economy of Heavy Drinking
A new study has found that excessive alcohol drinking costs Americans more than $220 billion a year. That amount is equal to almost two dollars a drink. But study organizers believe the biggest costs come from a loss of worker productivity.
一项新的研究发现，过度饮酒每年花费美国人 2200 亿美元以上。这个数目相当于一杯酒近 2 美元。但研究的组织者认为最大的成本来自于劳动者生产力的损失。
Robert Brewer works for America’s Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, a public health agency. He helped to produce a report on the study.
Robert Brewer 在美国疾病控制和预防中心工作，这是一家公共卫生机构。他协助完成了该研究的报告。
The researchers used findings from 2006 to examine different costs linked to heavy drinking. They looked at results from around the United States and found a lot of variation in different parts of the country.
研究人员利用 2006 年以来的成果调查了与酗酒有关的不同成本。他们查看了整个美国的结果，发现在这个国家的不同地方有很大不同。
Alcohol-related costs include health care, the cost of trying cases for drinking-related crimes, and property damage from road accidents. Robert Brewer says the biggest cost is loss productivity. Many people with a drinking problem have lower-paying jobs. He says they may also be less productive when they are at work.
有酒精有关的成本包括医保、审理与饮酒有关犯罪案件的成本和交通事故的财产损失。Robert Brewer 说，最大的成本是生产力的损失。很多有饮酒问题的人工作薪水较低。他说，他们在工作中可能更缺少生产力。
“In addition to that, a number of people die of alcohol-attributable conditions. And many of those folks die in the prime of their life. So there’s the personal tragedy there. But there’s also a huge economic cost to somebody dying, for example, in an alcohol-related motor vehicle crash at age 35.”
“除此之外，很多人死于酒精引起的状况，而且很多这样的人死于他们生命的早期。因此会出现很多的个人悲剧。但人的死亡还存在很大的经济成本，比如，一个人在 35 岁时死于与饮酒有关的车祸。”
The researchers were mainly concerned about the cost of heavy alcohol use. The study did not look at the effect on individuals who drink a glass of beer or wine with dinner. Mr. Brewer says the largest costs come from binge drinking, when people drink a lot of alcohol in a short period of time.
The study was based on the economic costs of heavy drinking in the United States. But Mr. Brewer says many nations have problems with what the World Health Organization calls “harmful use of alcohol.”
该研究基于酗酒在美国带来的经济代价。但 Brewer 先生说，很多其他国家也存在这种被世界卫生组织称为“有害使用酒精”的问题。
“But I think that it is very reasonable to assume that harmful alcohol use is going to result in some of the same consequences in other countries, even if the costs associated with those consequences are different.”
The study on the economic costs of excessive alcohol use was published in the American Journal of Preventive Medicine.
And that’s As It Is for today. Our program was written from reports by Jessica Berman and Art Chimes, with additional reporting by Kim Varzi.
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I’m Christopher Cruise, and that’s As It Is from The Voice of America.