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[翻译]SCIENCE IN THE NEWS - Artificial Intelligence: Helpful and Dangerous

来源:慢速英语   时间:2016-05-23 08:34:07

Computers and other machines have and will continue to change the way people do business and how we live.

计算机和其它机器已经,而且也将继续改变人们经商和生活的方式。

Many researchers use the term artificial intelligence (AI) to describe the thinking and intelligent behavior demonstrated by machines. While AI can be helpful to human beings, scientists warn, it can also be a threat.

许多研究人员使用人工智能(简称AI)来描述机器表现出的思维和智能行为。尽管人工智能对人类有帮助,但是科学家们警告说,人工智能也会成为一种威胁。

We live with artificial intelligence all around us. A few examples are iPhone’s personal assistant Siri, searches on the Internet, and autopilot programs on airplanes.

人工智能围绕在我们身边。例子包括iPhone手机的个人助理Siri,互联网搜索引擎,以及飞机上的自动驾驶仪。

AI is not new. But it is quickly getting more and more complex, and, well, more intelligent.

人工智能并非什么新鲜事。但是它很快变得越来越复杂,也越来越智能。

Stuart Russell teaches computer science at the University of California, Berkeley. He says humans should be sure to make AI products that we like.

斯图尔特·罗素(Stuart Russell)在加州大学伯克利分校教授计算机科学。他说,人类应该要确保制造我们喜欢的人工智能产品。

”If we are going to make systems that are going to be more intelligent than us, it’s absolutely essential for us to understand how to absolutely guarantee that they only do things that we are happy with.”

他说,“如果我们将要制造会比我们更为智能的系统,我们绝对需要了解如何绝对确保它们只做我们满意的事情。”

In the future, Russell says, many of today’s jobs that require a lot of physical labor will be replaced by machines with artificial intelligence. These include agricultural jobs, and ones with repetitive duties like telephone call centers. AI machines could also replace jobs like ones in the financial industry — jobs that require studying a lot of data.

罗素表示,在未来,很多如今需要大量体力劳动的岗位将被具有人工智能的机器所替代。这些岗位包括农业岗位,以及重复性工作,例如电话呼叫中心。人工智能机器可能也将取代金融行业中需要研究大量数据的岗位。

This could lead to more questions.

这可能会导致很多问题。

”But if we replaced all the jobs that require human physical labor and then we replace all the jobs that require human mental labor, then you have to ask, well, 'What’s left?'”

他说,“如果我们用人工智能替代所有需要体力劳动的岗位,然后替代所有需要脑力劳动的岗位,那么你就得问,‘我们还剩下些什么岗位?’”

Russell sees artificial intelligence changing the economy and current way of life.

罗素认为人工智能改变了经济和当前的生活方式。

“Most people will be employed, possibly even self-employed, in providing individualized personal services to other human beings, that we won’t have mass employment in manufacturing or in financial services.”

他说,“大多数人将会在向其他人类提供个性化贴身服务方面就业。我们将不会在制造业和金融服务业上大规模就业。”

He says that means the large factory, or large office building with thousands of people doing the same thing, will go away.

他说,这意味着有着成千上万人做着相同事情的大型工厂或大型写字楼将会消失。

Guruduth Banavar is IBM’s Chief Science Officer of Cognitive Computing. He sees a future where new jobs such as data engineering will be created.

古如德斯·巴维亚(Guruduth Banavar)是IBM认知计算部门的首席科学官。他认为未来会产生数据工程等新职位。

”The future will require everybody to work with these learning reasoning machines. So I think the skill set for many of these jobs will end up being different in the future.”

他说,“未来需要大家同这些学习推理机器一起工作。所以我认为,面向这类工作的技能在未来最终将会与众不同。”

The health care industry is one area artificial intelligence is already changing. AI can process huge amounts of data, so doctors can use the most up-to-date information to diagnose and treat patients.

医疗保健行业是人工智能已经在改变的一个领域。人工智能可以处理大量数据,这样医生就能使用最新信息来诊断和治疗病人。

IBM’s Watson technology is already in use at hospitals in North and South America, Europe and Asia.

IBM的沃森技术已经在北美、南美、欧洲和亚洲的医院得到应用。

Banavar says Watson helps doctors keep up with information.

巴维亚表示,沃森技术帮助医生跟上信息的潮流。

“The difference between going to a doctor who has Watson versus not having Watson is very big, because when doctors, you go to a doctor today you might find somebody who is 10 years out of date.”

他说,“让一个拥有沃森系统的医生看病相对于让没有沃森系统的医生看病之间存在着巨大差异。因为如今你看医生的时候会发现,有些医生已经落后时代十年。”

There is also a dangerous side to artificial intelligence. One example is combining drone aircraft technology and AI to create autonomous weapons.

人工智能也具有危险的一面。一个例子就是无人机技术和人工智能结合打造出自主武器。

Stuart Russell is working to create international treaties to ban such weapons. He says the risk is that people will use this technology to develop a kind of “poor man’s nuclear weapon.”

罗素正致力于建立国际条约来禁止这类武器。他说,风险在于,人们会使用这种技术开发出某种穷人的核武器。

“It is a race against time because the weapons are starting to emerge, the research is moving into development, development is moving into production...”

他说,“这是同时间赛跑。因为这种武器开始涌现,研究正在进入开发,开发正在进入生产......”

IBM’s Banavar points out the value of artificial intelligence, including search engines and the autopilot function on planes.

IBM的巴维亚指出了人工智能的价值,包括搜索引擎和飞机自动驾驶功能。

The debate about whether artificial intelligence is good -- or bad -- for humans continues. Researchers agree there is no question that the technology is here, and will continue to change life on our planet.

人工智能对人类到底是好是坏的争论还在继续。研究人员承认人工智能毫无疑问已经出现了,也将继续改变我们地球上的生命。

I’m Anne Ball.

Words in This Story

artificial intelligence – n. the thinking and intelligent behavior put into machines

repetitive – adj. happening again and again

data – n. information

cognitive – adj. relating to or involving conscious mental activities like thinking, learning, understanding

drone – n. a small flying machine flown remotely by a pilot

autonomous – adj. existing or acting separately from other things or people

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