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[翻译]AS IT IS - Will High Cost of Small Loans Hurt Cambodians?

来源:慢速英语   时间:2017-03-29 09:59:49

The Cambodian government has ordered a limit on interest rates on small loans. The decision comes before local elections are set to take place in June.

柬埔寨政府下令限制小额贷款的利率,该决定是在六月份举行地方选举之前出台的。

The 18 percent limit on the microfinance industry interest rates takes effect on April 1.

小额贷款行业18%的利率上限将从4月1日开始执行。

Microfinance businesses operate in many developing countries. They accept deposits and provide small loans to people in the developing world.

小额贷款企业在很多发展中国家开展业务。他们接受存款,并向发展中国家的人们提供小额贷款。

In Sokai is a 32-year-old Cambodian garment worker. She recently received a microfinance loan of $5,000. She must repay it within four years.

In Sokai是柬埔寨一名32岁的制衣工人。她最近得到了一笔5000美元的小额贷款,这笔贷款必须在4年内还清。

“I borrowed $5000 and I bought chickens, built the house, and my husband bought a boat, fishing nets and other items,” she said.

她说,“我借了5000美元,然后我买了鸡,建了房子,我的丈夫买了一条船、渔网和其它物品。”

She will pay interest at a rate of 22 percent a year.

她将以22%的年利率支付利息。

The new legislation will not reduce her loan payments because the law has not yet taken effect.

新法律不会减少她的贷款还款额,因为这项法律尚未生效。

Her loan is considered large for the Cambodian microfinance industry. Seventy percent of microfinance industry, of MFI, loans are under $500.

她的贷款对柬埔寨小额贷款行业来说是一笔巨款。小额贷款行业70%的贷款低于500美元。

Sokai had not heard of the new law. But it has caused a lot of concern among the private microfinance businesses in Cambodia.

Sokai没有听过这项新法律。但这项法律已经在柬埔寨私营小额贷款企业中引起了很大关注。

Small loans more costly to provide, lenders say

放贷机构称小额贷款放贷成本更高

Microfinance loans are usually for less than one year. Their interest rates are very high -- 30 percent or more. Microfinance industry supporters say this is necessary because the costs of servicing small, risky loans are higher.

小额贷款通常不到1年时间,它们的利率很高,达到了30%以上。小额贷款行业的支持者表示,这么高的利率是很必要的,因为提供高风险小额贷款的成本更高。

The high cost of the loans has not reduced demand, however.

然而这么高的成本并未减少需求。

Cambodia’s microfinance industry is growing quickly. In 2015, there were 1.5 million depositors and more than two million borrowers. MFIs are in every province of the country of 15 million people.

柬埔寨的小额贷款行业正在快速增长。2015年,该行业有150万储户和超过2百万的借款人。小额信贷机构遍布这个人口1500万的国家的每个省份。

Almost all the loans go to people living outside Phnom Pehn, Cambodia’s capital. Most borrowers are women.

几乎所有的贷款都流向了居住在柬埔寨首都金边以外的人们。大多数借款人为女性。

The new law comes before local elections in June. A national vote is to take place in the middle of 2018.

这项新法律是在六月份地方选举之前出台的。全国投票将于2018年中期进行。

Supporters of the new law say the limit is meant to protect Cambodians from paying high rates. Lawmakers also want to increase access to Cambodia’s financial system.

这项新法案的支持者表示,这项限制是为了防止柬埔寨人承担高利率。立法者也希望提高人们接触柬埔寨金融体系的途径。

Borrowers often use their land or home as a security for the loan. They can lose their property if they are unable to pay.

借款人通常用土地或房屋作为贷款担保物。如果无法还贷,他们可能会失去财产。

Interest rate limits are not unusual. Many countries have them. But, the World Bank says they are becoming less popular.

利率限制并不少见。很多国家都有利率限制。但是世界银行表示,利率限制越来越不受欢迎。

Some industry observers, however, say the law limiting interest rates will have a negative effect. Stephen Higgins is with Mekong Strategic Partners. The company gives business advice.

然而一些行业观察家表示,限制利率的法律将会产生负面影响。Stephen Higgins就职于湄公河战略合作伙伴。该公司提供商业咨询。

“Ideally we shouldn’t have this cap. The interest rates in Cambodia for these small loans, they’re actually amongst the lowest in the world. And people forget that.”

他说,“理想情况下我们不应该有这种上限。柬埔寨小额贷款的利率实际上是全球最低的,人们忘了这点。”

Higgins says the cost of lending for small loans is high. He says microfinance businesses need to charge a 30 percent interest rate for a $500 nine-month loan to make a small profit.

Higgins表示,小额贷款的借出成本很高。他说,小额贷款企业需要对期限为9个月的500美元贷款收取30%的利率才能小幅盈利。

Opponents of the limits say microfinance businesses may stop offering loans. That, they say, will force rural people to go to moneylenders who charge much higher interest rates.

利率限制的反对派表示,小额贷款企业可能会停止提供贷款。这会迫使农村人投向收取更高利率的放贷人。

The Cambodia Microfinance Association (CMA) is a non-profit organization based in Phnom Penh. It supports microfinance businesses. It says its members will need to reduce costs and become more efficient in order to survive.

柬埔寨小额贷款协会是一家总部位于金边的非营利组织。它支持小额贷款企业。该组织表示,其成员将需要降低成本并且变得更高效才能生存下去。

Mey Kalyan is an economist and adviser to the government. He supports the law. He says it will help protect small farmers from agriculture-related debt. He says that farmers who take out high interest loans of 30 percent or more struggle to make a profit.

Mey Kalyan是一名经济学家和政府顾问。他支持这项法律。他说,这将有助于防止小农户背上农业相关的债务。他说,背负30%或更高利率贷款的农民很难盈利。

CMA chairman Hout Ieng Tong says at least some CMA members will still offer small loans. But it is unclear whether the new interest rate limit will hurt deposits in microfinance businesses or will drive borrowers to higher-cost moneylenders.

柬埔寨小额贷款协会会长Hout Ieng Tong表示,至少一些协会成员仍然会提供小额贷款。但是新的利率限制是否会损害小额贷款企业的存款,或是驱使借款人投向成本更高的放贷人,这点尚不明确。

I’m Mario Ritter.

And I'm Ashley Thompson.

Words in This Story

cap –n. a limit on something

microfinance industry –n. businesses that provide banking services like taking deposits and providing small loans to people with little income