首页 | VOA慢速英语 | 今日美国 - 【今日美国】US Fastest Growing Jobs: Caring for the Wealthy 美国增长最快的工作:照顾富人
【今日美国】US Fastest Growing Jobs: Ca 本站原创 更新时间: 2019-11-25         

America's extremely wealthy population is bigger than ever. And their money is supporting jobs for an increasing number of low-wage workers.

Also called "wealth workers," they cut, clean and color the nails of rich people's hands and feet. They rub and stretch rich people's bodies. They help rich people exercise and become stronger. But the workers who provide this manicuringmassaging and personal training often earn very low wages.

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美国极其富裕的人口比以往任何时候都多。 他们的钱为越来越多的低薪工人提供了工作。

他们也被称为“财富工人”,他们切割、清洁和着色富人的手脚指甲。 他们按摩有钱人的身体。 他们帮助有钱人锻炼身体并变得更强壮。 但是提供这种修指甲、按摩和私人培训的工人的工资通常很低。


Mark Muro is a researcher at the Brookings Institution in Washington, DC. He explains that people with extra money are willing to pay other people to do services for them – whether it's teaching them yoga or walking their dogs. At the same time, Muro says, an increasing number of people "really need this sort of work."

But he notes that the country is losing middle-wage work – what Americans might call "traditionally more solid or dignified."

Personal care and services jobs are the fastest growing part of the job market for non-college-educated workers, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reports. They are expected to grow by 17% in the next 10 years.


马克·穆罗(Mark Muro)是华盛顿特区布鲁金斯学会(Brookings Institution)的研究员。 他解释说,有钱的人愿意付钱给别人为他们服务—无论是教他们瑜伽还是遛狗。 Muro说,与此同时,越来越多的人“真的需要这种工作”。

但他指出,该国正在失去中等工资工作,美国人可能称其为“传统上更加坚实或有尊严”。

美国劳工统计局的报告显示,个人护理和服务工作是非大专以上学历的劳动力市场中增长最快的部分。 预计在未来10年中,它们将增长17%。

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The Brookings Institution adds that the number of manicurists and pedicurists doubled between 2010 and 2017. Exercise trainers and dog walkers increased at up to three times the rate of employment.

Muro says at least 3 million people in the United States currently do this type of service work for the rich. Wealth workers are more likely to be women and Latino. They often do not have a college degree. And they may work several jobs providing services to people who have more money.


布鲁金斯学会(Brookings Institution)补充说,在2010年至2017年间,修指甲师和修脚师的人数增加了一倍。运动训练师和遛狗者的就业率增长了三倍。

穆罗说,美国目前至少有300万人为富人提供这种服务。 财富工作者更可能是女性和拉丁裔。 他们通常没有大学学位, 他们可能会从事一些工作,为有钱人提供服务。


"Our concern is not so much that the jobs exist, but that because of the way we structure work in America, they're not...good jobs. They really don't pay that well," Muro says.

These workers are among the easiest to use unfairly. They rarely have sick leave, vacation days or savings to support them when they stop working.

But the jobs do offer something for new immigrants. One-third of workers in the U.S. are in the so-called gig economy, about 10 percent of them full time. The rest are part time, picking up gigs — such as driving for Uber – to add money from another job.


穆罗说:“我们关心的不是职位的存在,而是由于我们在美国的工作结构,他们不是……好工作。他们的薪水确实不那么高。”

这些工人是最容易被不公平使用的工人。 当他们停止工作时,他们很少请病假、休假或积蓄来养活他们。

但是这些工作确实为新移民提供了一些东西。 美国有三分之一的工人处于所谓的零工经济中,其中约有10%是全职的。 其余的是兼职,参加演出(例如开优步)以从另一份工作中赚钱。

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"I think it's good for the economy because these are people who need those jobs and demand is the greatest (creator) of labor power for working people," says Louis Hyman. He is the director of the Institute for Workplace Studies at Cornell University. "The question is not how do we get rid of the gig economy, but how do we marry that with security? And it's not just a question for gig workers, but for all low-wage workers in America."

Hyman says one answer to the problem could be to set up a system of private accounts for each worker. Every time someone provides a service, a dollar goes into their health care account, and a dollar goes into their savings account. That way, says Hyman, workers have an easy way to build financial security.


路易斯·海曼说:“我认为这对经济有利,因为这些人需要这些工作,而需求是劳动人民最大的劳动力创造者。” 他是康奈尔大学工作场所研究所的所长。 “问题不在于我们如何摆脱零工经济,而是如何将其与安全结合起来?这不仅是零工的问题,也是美国所有低薪工人的问题。”

海曼说,解决这个问题的一个办法可能是为每个工人建立一个私人帐户系统。 每次有人提供服务时,都会在他们的医疗保健帐户中存入一美元,在他们的储蓄帐户中存入一美元。 海曼说,这样一来,工人就可以轻松地建立财务安全。


Mark Muro is also concerned about the health of American society. Service jobs often show the difference between the wealthy and the poor. That difference "will produce a lot of dissatisfaction...among the bottom half," Muro says. He urges that work serving others be taken seriously and respected.

"Let's ensure these are dignified jobs," he says.


马克·穆罗(Mark Muro)也担心美国社会的健康。 服务工作通常会显示出贫富之间的差异。 穆罗说,这种差异“将在下半部引起很多不满。” 他敦促认真对待和尊重为他人服务的工作。

他说:“让我们确保这些都是有尊严的工作。”


重点词汇:

Words in This Story:

massage – n. the action of rubbing or pressing someone's body in a way that helps muscles to relax or reduces pain in muscles and joints

manicure – n.an act that cleans the nails of the hand

dignified – adj.serious and formal

pedicure – n.an act that cleans the nails of the feet

gig economy – n. a type of working that includes doing part-time or one day jobs, employment without security

rid – v.to remove


链接:

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