The inventor of the World Wide Web, Tim Berners-Lee, says the web "has changed the world for good and improved the lives of billions." But he adds that many people still have no internet access. And access comes with very high costs, including loss of privacy, misinformation, state-sponsored attacks and other criminal acts.
互联网的发明者蒂姆·伯纳斯·李（Tim Berners-Lee）说，互联网“已经彻底改变了世界，改善了数十亿人的生活。” 但他补充说，许多人仍然无法上网，而且访问要付出很高的代价，包括失去隐私、错误信息、国家资助的攻击和其他犯罪行为。
This week, Berners-Lee released a "Contract for the Web." The action plan is designed to save the web. The contract was a yearlong effort by the World Wide Web Foundation, where Berners-Lee is a founding director. The contract seeks commitments from governments, companies and citizens to make and keep information freely available.
本周，伯纳斯·李发布了“网络合同”。 该行动计划旨在保存网络。 该合同是由万维网基金会进行的为期一年的工作，伯纳斯·李是该基金会的创始董事。 该合同要求政府、公司和公民做出承诺，以免费提供和保持信息。
Contract for the We
Berners-Lee said, "This is the first time we've had a rule book in which responsibility is being shared."
The contract says governments must make sure everyone can connect to the web. It also says governments need to "keep all of the internet available, all of the time." And it asks governments to respect and protect people's privacy and data rights.
合同规定，政府必须确保每个人都可以连接到网络。 它还说，政府需要“始终保持所有可用的互联网”。 它要求政府尊重和保护人们的隐私和数据权利。
For companies, the contract says they have the responsibility to make the internet low-cost enough for everyone to use it. It says companies also must respect people's privacy and data rights. And, it says companies should be developing technologies that "support the best in humanity and challenge the worst."
Private citizens also play a part. The contract urges them to be "creators and collaborators of the web." It says citizens should build strong and respectful online communities. And it says citizens should fight for the web to remain open.
The contract is non-binding, however. Its partners and financial supporters include Google and Facebook. The two companies have been criticized for creating a toxic online environment with its business models.
对于公司而言，合同规定他们有责任使互联网价格低廉，所有人都可以使用。 它说公司还必须尊重人们的隐私和数据权利。 而且，它说公司应该开发“支持人类最好的技术并挑战最坏的技术”的技术。
私人公民也参与其中。 合同敦促他们成为“网络的创造者和合作者”。 它说，公民应该建立强大和尊重的在线社区。 它说，公民应该为保持网络开放而战。
但是，该合同没有约束力。 其合作伙伴和财务支持者包括Google和Facebook。 两家公司因其商业模式而创建不好的在线环境而受到批评。
Internet giants' business model
Amnesty International recently released a reportcharging that Google and Facebook's business model threatens human rights. It says, "the companies' surveillance based business model is...incompatible with the right to privacy." The report also says the business model threatens other rights, including "freedom of opinion and expression, freedom of thought, and the right to equality and non-discrimination."
Berners-Lee said of Facebook and Google, "having them is the room is really important."
大赦国际最近发布了一份报告，指控谷歌和脸书的商业模式威胁着人权。 它说：“公司基于监视的商业模式……与隐私权不兼容。” 该报告还说，商业模式威胁着其他权利，包括“见解和言论自由，思想自由以及平等和不歧视的权利”。
He said, "We feel that companies and governments deserve equal seats at the table and understanding where they're coming from is equally valuable."
Other major financial supporters of the foundation include the Swedish and German international development agencies, the Ford Foundation and Omidyar network.
Governments' role in internet access
The Contract for the Web asks governments to make sure "everyone can connect to the internet." But some governments have increased their control over internet access.
Just this month, Iran shut down the internet and limited communications with the outside world, following huge protests over rising gasoline prices. And last month, Iraq blocked its citizens from going online in answer to a massive anti-government movement.
The Keep It Oncoalition reports that there were over 180 internet shutdowns across 25 countries in 2018. Most of the countries were in Asia and Africa.
Keep It Oncoalition报告称，2018年，全球25个国家/地区的互联网关闭次数超过180次。大多数国家/地区位于亚洲和非洲。
In its first-ever Digital Economy Report, the United Nations warned that inequality will worsen unless the international community addresses the so-called "digital divide." That is the divide between under-connected and highly connected countries.
The report says the United States and China create a large majority of their wealth in the digital economy. The two countries own as much as 90 percent of the market value of the world's 70 largest digital companies.
UN Secretary-General António Guterres wrote in the report's introduction, "We must work to close the digital divide, where more than half the world has limited, or no access to the Internet. Inclusivity is essential to building a digital economy that delivers for all."
The Contract for the Web asks users to take an active role to save the web. It suggests users strongly oppose the weaponization of the web by nation states and support companies that fight for human rights and the public good.
What would success look like?
Berners-Lee says he will consider the contract a success when "a critical mass of governments and companies have put the right laws...and policies in place to create an open and empowering web for all."
He added that success would mean "most people communicate positively and respectfully online."
Words in This Story：
access – n.permission or ability to enter or pass through
toxic – adj.containing poisonous material
non-binding- adj. not officially requiring that you do something : not able to be enforced by law
surveillance – n.close watch kept over someone or something
incompatible – adj.not both true; conflicting
seat at the table- expression. a position as a member of a group that makes decisions
essential – adj.being important or necessary