首页 > VOA慢速英语 > 农业报道 > 【农业报道】改变土地用途可增加鼠疫风险 Changing land use could increase plague risk

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【农业报道】改变土地用途可增加鼠疫风险 Changing land use could increase plague risk

来源:慢速英语   时间:2020-01-11 16:01:51

Efforts to increase food production in Africa may be increasing the risk of plague infection.Plague has been killing people for hundreds of years.A new report looks at efforts to clear land for farming in natural,undeveloped areas of Tanzania.The report links the development of natural lands into croplands to a sharp increase in the number of rats.It warns the animals often carry insects infected with plague.


增加非洲粮食产量的努力可能会增加鼠疫感染的风险。几百年来瘟疫一直在杀人。一份新的报告着眼于在坦桑尼亚自然的、不发达地区清理耕地的努力。报告将自然土地开发成农田与老鼠数量的急剧增加联系起来。它警告动物经常携带感染鼠疫的昆虫。


Many people become frightened when they hear the word"plague."One of the most famous periods of plague death was known as the"Black Death."It was a time 700 years ago when the disease killed more than 25 million people in Europe.


许多人听到“瘟疫”这个词就会感到害怕。瘟疫死亡最著名的时期之一被称为“黑死病”。700年前,瘟疫在欧洲造成2500多万人死亡。


Health officials do not believe plague will kill many people in Africa.But they are worried about the rising number of plague infections.Thirty to 60 percent of those infected will die if they are not given medicine.


卫生官员认为瘟疫不会杀死非洲的许多人。但他们担心鼠疫感染人数的上升。如果不服药,30%到60%的感染者将死亡。

Plague is caused by bacterium.It is passed between animals and humans through the bite of an inflected flea or by touching an infected animal.Rats often carry fleas.The insects feed on the blood of an infected rat.


鼠疫是由细菌引起的。它通过弯曲的跳蚤的叮咬或接触受感染的动物在动物和人类之间传播。老鼠常携带跳蚤。这些昆虫以受感染老鼠的血为食。


There are three forms of plague.The most common is bubonic plague.This was the disease that spread in Europe during the 14th century.Bubonic plague causes enlargement of lymph nodes.The lymphatic system is the part of the body's natural defense system against disease.


瘟疫有三种形式。最常见的是黑死病。这是14世纪在欧洲传播的疾病。腺鼠疫引起淋巴结肿大。淋巴系统是人体抵御疾病的自然防御系统的一部分。


If the plague infection is not treated,the bacteria can reach the lungs.Then,the person may develop pneumonic plague.This is the least common but most aggressive form of the disease.It can be easily spread through small droplets expelled from the person's nose or mouth.A person infected with bubonic plague cannot infect others.


如果鼠疫感染得不到治疗,细菌就可以到达肺部。然后,该人可能患上肺鼠疫。这是最不常见但最具攻击性的疾病。它很容易通过从人的鼻子或嘴巴排出的小水滴传播。感染腺鼠疫的人不能传染他人。


The World Health Organization says pneumonic plague is one of the most deadly infectious diseases.People suffer high body temperature,shaking,pain,weakness,and muscle and joint pain within two to three days of being infected.


世界卫生组织说,肺鼠疫是最致命的传染病之一。人们在被感染后的两到三天内遭受高温、颤抖、疼痛、虚弱以及肌肉和关节疼痛。


Antibiotic drugs can cure the disease.But the infected individual must take them very quickly,because pneumonic plague can kill people within 24 hours after infection.The WHO says only a small number of reported cases are of the pneumonic form.


抗生素可以治愈这种疾病。但感染者必须迅速服用,因为肺鼠疫可以在感染后24小时内杀死人。世卫组织说,只有少数报告病例是肺炎。


Kristofer Helgen is with the Smithsonian Institution's Museum of Natural History in Washington,D.C.He helped to write the new report.It was published online in the American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.He spoke to VOA about the disease.


克里斯托弗·赫尔根在华盛顿特区史密森学会自然历史博物馆工作,他帮助撰写了这份新报告。它发表在美国热带医学与卫生杂志的网上。他和美国之音谈到了这种疾病。


"It maybe surprises people to learn that plague remains a public health concern in various parts of the world--especially in Africa south of the Sahara.Plague circulates in small mammals and rodents.And when the conditions are right,it's a disease that can spread to people and it can still be a deadly disease.Now,plague is a disease that is treatable with antibiotics.And in that regard,it's considerably maybe less scary,less alarming than other emerging diseases like Ebola.But we should remember that this is a disease that is still on the ground in Africa and remains a public health concern."


“当人们得知瘟疫在世界各地,特别是撒哈拉以南的非洲,仍然是一个公共卫生问题时,也许会感到惊讶。鼠疫在小型哺乳动物和啮齿动物中传播。如果条件合适,这是一种可以传染给人们的疾病,而且仍然是一种致命的疾病。现在,鼠疫是一种可以用抗生素治疗的疾病。在这方面,它可能比埃博拉等其他新兴疾病更不可怕、更不令人担忧。但我们应该记住,这是一种仍在非洲实地存在的疾病,仍然是一个公共卫生问题。”


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