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【科学新闻】太阳活动影响地球上通讯 Solar activity affects communication on Earth

来源:慢速英语   时间:2020-01-11 15:44:49

Scientists who study the sun watch for sunspots--violent storms that can affect communications,navigation systems and even electric power stations on Earth.


研究太阳的科学家们会观察太阳黑子——会影响地球上通讯、导航系统甚至发电站的猛烈风暴。


One of those scientists is Alex Young of the Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt,Maryland.Crews at Goddard are studying the Earth and our solar system for NASA,the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.Mr.Young recently told VOA what the space agency is learning about the sun.


其中一位科学家是马里兰州绿带戈达德太空飞行中心的亚历克斯杨。戈达德的工作人员正在为美国国家航空航天局(NASA)研究地球和太阳系。杨先生最近告诉美国之音,航天局正在了解太阳的情况。


Sunspots are a product of huge electromagnetic storms on the sun.Scientists on Earth are able to observe sunspots eight minutes after they happen.That is how long it takes for the sun's light to reach us.


太阳黑子是太阳上巨大电磁风暴的产物。地球上的科学家能够在太阳黑子发生8分钟后观测到它们。这就是太阳光到达我们的时间。


The first electrically charged particles from a sunspot enter Earth's atmosphere about 20 to 30 minutes after the storm happens.These particles can harm human beings.So before they arrive,astronauts on the International Space Station move into special areas designed to protect them from their effects.


太阳黑子的第一个带电粒子在风暴发生后大约20到30分钟进入地球大气层。这些微粒会伤害人类。因此,在他们到达之前,国际空间站的宇航员会进入特殊的区域,以保护他们免受其影响。


About a day or two later,the biggest part of the storm arrives.It is called a coronal mass ejection.


大约一两天后,风暴的最大部分到达。它被称为日冕物质抛射。

"That is billions of tons of solar material that's blown away from the sun.(When)it's traveling millions of kilometers an hour,but that is relatively slow."


“那是数十亿吨被太阳吹走的太阳物质。(当)它每小时行驶数百万公里,但速度相对较慢。”


That is Alex Young.He is the Associate Director for Science at NASA's Heliophysics Science Division.


那是亚历克斯·扬。他是美国宇航局太阳物理科学部的科学副主任。


Several civilian government agencies and the U.S.Air Force watch weather conditions in space 24 hours a day.NASA does so because it must protect its astronauts and the electronic devices on its spacecraft.


一些民间政府机构和美国空军24小时在太空观察天气状况。美国航天局这么做是因为它必须保护宇航员和航天器上的电子设备。


Scientists are also trying to understand why the number of sunspots rises and falls at almost regular intervals every 11 years.In other words,scientists can almost predict the amount of solar activity.


科学家们还试图理解为什么太阳黑子的数量几乎每隔11年就有规律地上升和下降。换句话说,科学家几乎可以预测太阳活动的数量。


"Also,sometimes the intensity is higher,sometimes lower.For example,the current solar cycle,as we call it,that we are in,is much lower than the previous one."


“而且,有时强度更高,有时更低。例如,我们现在所处的太阳周期,正如我们所说的,比前一个太阳周期要低得多。”


Several satellites watch the sun and the environment between the sun and the earth.Pictures and other information from the satellites tell scientists what is happening on and near the sun.


几颗卫星观测太阳和太阳与地球之间的环境。来自卫星的图片和其他信息告诉科学家在太阳上和太阳附近发生了什么。


Alex Young says we have only been looking at the sun with powerful instruments for about 30 to 40 years.That is a very short time compared to the four billion years that the star has been shining.


亚历克斯杨说,我们只用强大的仪器观察太阳大约30到40年。这是一个非常短的时间相比,40亿年,恒星一直发光。


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