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【探索发现】激光的历史和用途 History and use of lasers

Laser is short for Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation.The idea behind lasers is complex.Just how complex?Consider that it took the mind of Albert Einstein to discover the physics behind the laser.


激光是受激辐射光放大的简称。激光背后的想法很复杂。有多复杂?想想看,阿尔伯特·爱因斯坦的头脑发现了激光背后的物理。


Theodore Maiman succeed in building the first working laser in nineteen sixty.Mr.Maiman worked at Hughes Research Laboratories in Malibu,California.


西奥多·迈曼在1960年成功地制造了第一台工作激光器。迈曼先生在加州马里布的休斯研究实验室工作。


Theodore Maiman with parts of the first laser at Hughes Research Laboratories


西奥多·迈曼与休斯研究实验室第一台激光器的部分部件

A laser fires a light beam.Before the laser,scientists developed a similar device:a maser which stands for Microwave Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation.A maser is basically a microwave version of the laser.Microwaves are a form of electromagnetic radiation similar to,but shorter than,radio waves.The best-known use of masers is in highly accurate clocks.


激光发射光束。在激光出现之前,科学家们开发了一种类似的装置:微波激射器,它代表受激辐射的微波放大微波激射器基本上是激光的微波版本。微波是一种电磁辐射,与无线电波类似,但比无线电波短。最著名的微波激射器是在高精度时钟中使用的。


In the nineteen fifties,researchers in the United States and Russia independently developed the technology that made both masers and lasers possible.Charles Townes was a professor at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Cambridge,Massachusetts.He and his students developed the first maser.


在20世纪50年代,美国和俄罗斯的研究人员独立开发了使微波激射器和激光都成为可能的技术。查尔斯·汤斯是马萨诸塞州剑桥市麻省理工学院的教授。他和他的学生们发明了第一台微波炉。


Russians Nicolay Basov and Aleksandr Prokhorov did their research in Moscow.Their work led to technology important to lasers and masers.The three men received the Nobel Prize in Physics in nineteen sixty-four.


俄罗斯人尼古拉巴索夫和普罗霍罗夫在莫斯科进行了研究。他们的工作产生了对激光和微波激射器很重要的技术。这三个人在1964年获得了诺贝尔物理学奖。


The idea of a thin beam of light with deadly power came much earlier.By the end of the eighteen hundreds,the industrial revolution had shown that science could invent machines with almost magical powers.And some writers of the time were the first to imagine something like a laser.


具有致命能量的细光束的想法来得更早。到十八世纪末,工业革命已经表明,科学可以发明几乎具有神奇力量的机器。当时的一些作家是第一个想到激光之类的东西的。


In eighteen ninety-eighty,H.G.Wells published a science fiction novel called"The War of the Worlds."In it,he described creatures from the planet Mars that had technology far beyond anything on Earth.Among their weapons was what Wells called a"heat ray."Listen to actor Orson Welles describe the weapon in a famous radio broadcast of"The War of the Worlds"from nineteen thirty-eight.


在1890年,H.G.威尔斯出版了一部科幻小说,名为“世界大战”。在小说中,他描述了来自火星的生物,这些生物拥有的技术远远超出了地球上的任何东西。在他们的武器中有威尔斯所说的“热射线”,听演员奥森威尔斯在1938年著名的“世界大战”广播中描述了这种武器。


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