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【科技报道】大脑不为人知的一面 The hidden side of the brain

Scientists are developing a medical device that could tell them more about the human body,and help them develop more-effective treatments for cancer,heart disease and brain disorders.


科学家正在开发一种医疗设备,可以告诉他们更多关于人体的信息,并帮助他们开发出更有效的治疗癌症、心脏病和脑部疾病的方法。


It would be the world's first full-body PET scanner.PET stands for Positron Emission Tomography.PET scanners create 3-D images of what is happening in the body.


这将是世界上第一台全身PET扫描仪。PET代表正电子发射断层扫描。PET扫描仪可以生成人体内正在发生的事情的三维图像。


Researchers are calling the large scanner that they are developing Explorer.It will give medical workers images of what is happening in the entire human body that have never been seen before.PET scanners now give doctors images of only parts of the body.


研究人员称他们正在开发的大型扫描仪为探险家。它将给医务人员提供从未见过的整个人体的图像。PET扫描仪现在只给医生提供身体部分的图像。

The U.S.National Institutes of Health gave a research team at the University of California at Davis$15.5 million to build the scanner.


美国国立卫生研究院(U.S.National Institutes of Health)向加州大学戴维斯分校(University of California at Davis)的一个研究小组提供了1550万美元,用于建造扫描仪。


Ramsey Badawi is a professor of radiology at UC Davis.He says the scanner will give researchers new information about how human organs work together.


Ramsey Badawi是加州大学戴维斯分校的放射学教授。他说,扫描仪将为研究人员提供人体器官如何协同工作的新信息。


"We're a system of organs and all the organs interact with each other.And we've never really been able to interrogate that with imaging before,and now we're going to be able to look at that."


“我们是一个器官系统,所有器官相互作用。而且我们以前从来没有真正能够用成像来审问过这个问题,现在我们将能够看到这个问题。”


X-rays and MRIs give images of bones and organs.PET scans show doctors how organs and tissues are working on a molecular level.These images help them identify and follow diseases.The new scanner will help them do that even better.


X光和磁共振成像可以显示骨骼和器官的图像。PET扫描向医生展示了器官和组织在分子水平上是如何工作的。这些图像帮助他们识别和跟踪疾病。新的扫描仪将帮助他们做得更好。


Simon Cherry is a professor of biomedical engineering at UC Davis.He says the PET scans can show the progress of both disease and medical treatments.


西蒙·切瑞是加州大学戴维斯分校生物医学工程教授。他说PET扫描可以显示疾病和医疗的进展。


"With PET scans we're looking at function.We're actually able to say something about what the cells in the body are doing--how actively they're metabolizing,for example,or how quickly they're dividing.Taking a cancer example,that could be tremendously powerful to see if,when you give a drug,whether that shuts down the metabolism of the tumor."


“通过PET扫描,我们正在研究功能。我们实际上可以说一些关于体内细胞在做什么的事情——例如,它们代谢的活跃程度,或者它们分裂的速度。以癌症为例,当你给药时,这可能会极大地抑制肿瘤的新陈代谢。”


PET scans use a radioactive substance to find tumors.Professor Cherry says the Explorer uses a much lower amount of radiation than current PET tests,and creates images more quickly.


PET扫描使用放射性物质来发现肿瘤。Cherry教授说,探险家使用的辐射量比目前的PET测试要低得多,而且创建图像的速度也更快。


"So we can do scans in maybe 30 seconds that currently take 20 minutes.Or we can drop the radiation dose significantly,and do scans at a fraction of the radiation dose that we currently do them at."


“所以我们可以在30秒内扫描,而现在需要20分钟。或者我们可以显著降低辐射剂量,并以我们目前的辐射剂量的一小部分进行扫描。”


A complete view could help researchers develop new medicines that target diseases and parts of the body.It could help doctors reduce harmful side effects by following the movement of medicines through the body.


一个完整的观点可以帮助研究人员开发针对疾病和身体部分的新药。它可以帮助医生通过跟踪药物在体内的运动来减少有害的副作用。


The researchers hope to test the Explorer with humans in three years.


研究人员希望在三年内用人类对探险家进行测试。


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