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【科技报道】美国最强大的数字隐私法在加利福尼亚生效 America’s Strongest Digital Privacy Law Takes Effect in California

来源:慢速英语   时间:2020-01-10 16:54:23

America's strongest digital privacy law has taken effect in California.


美国最强大的数字隐私法已在加利福尼亚生效。


The law, known as the California Consumer Privacy Act (CCPA), requires businesses to inform consumers about the ways in which they collect and share personal information.


该法律被称为《加利福尼亚消费者隐私法》(CCPA),要求企业向消费者告知他们收集和共享个人信息的方式。


The law gives consumers the right to request that companies not sell or share their data. It also requires businesses to destroy information already collected if the consumer asks to have it removed.


法律赋予消费者权利,要求公司不出售或共享其数据。如果消费者要求删除已收集的信息,它还要求企业销毁已收集的信息。


The law covers the sale of data related to almost any sharing of information that can help a business. This includes information-sharing between companies as well as the selling of data by third-party businesses.


该法律涵盖与几乎任何可以帮助企业的信息共享有关的数据销售。这包括公司之间的信息共享以及第三方业务的数据销售。


Large online businesses, such as Facebook and Google, are affected by the law. So are major retail companies.


诸如Facebook和Google之类的大型在线业务受法律的影响。主要零售公司也是如此。


Walmart and Home Depot, among others, say they have added "Do Not Sell My Info" links to their websites to make it easier for consumers to exercise their rights. The businesses said they have also put the information on signs inside their stores.


沃尔玛和Home Depot等表示,他们已在其网站上添加了“请勿出售我的信息”链接,以使消费者更容易行使权利。这些企业表示,他们也已经将这些信息放在商店内部的标牌上。


Digital experts say it remains unclear how the CCPA will affect the kind of targeted advertising commonly used by companies like Facebook and Google.


数字专家表示,目前尚不清楚CCPA将如何影响Facebook和Google等公司常用的定向广告类型。


Facebook collects large amounts of personal data and uses the information to direct ads at different groups of people. The data could include someone's sex, race or religion. Facebook says it does not share that kind of personal information with advertisers.


Facebook收集了大量的个人数据,并使用这些信息将广告定向到不同的人群。数据可以包括某人的性别,种族或宗教信仰。 Facebook表示,它不会与广告商共享这种个人信息。

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The experts say that, because the law covers any company that meets conditions for interacting with state residents, the California law might end up serving as a legal model for other states.


专家们说,因为该法律涵盖了满足与州居民互动条件的任何公司,所以加利福尼亚州的法律最终可能成为其他州的法律典范。


"If we do this right in California," said California attorney general Xavier Becerra, the state will "put the capital ‘P' back into privacy for all Americans."


加利福尼亚州检察长贝塞拉(Xavier Becerra)表示:“如果我们在加利福尼亚做到这一点,该州将把首都'P'放回所有美国人的隐私中。”


California's legislation is the nation's biggest effort yet aimed at fighting against so-called "surveillance capitalism." This term describes the business of profiting from data that most Americans give up - often unknowingly – in exchange for free and often ad-supported services.


加利福尼亚州的立法是该国迄今为止最大的努力,旨在打击所谓的“监视资本主义”。这个术语描述了从大多数美国人(通常是在不知不觉中)放弃的数据中获利的业务,以换取免费且通常由广告支持的服务。


In a statement about the CCPA in October, Becerra said that personal data is what is powering today's wealthy digital economy. "It's time we had control over the use of our personal data. That includes keeping it private," he said. Becerra added that he sees the law as "a historic step forward" in putting the people of California "first in the age of the internet."


贝塞拉在10月关于CCPA的声明中说,个人数据是推动当今富裕的数字经济发展的动力。他说:“现在是我们控制个人数据使用的时候了。这包括将其保密。” Becerra补充说,他认为该法律是将加利福尼亚人民“置于互联网时代的首位”的“历史性进步”。


Some experts have noted that some parts of the law will likely bring legal challenges. One such challenge could center on constitutional concerns related to the many different areas covered by the law. The experts say the law's many exceptions could also be problematic, as well as the fact that it only affects information collected by businesses -- not the government.


一些专家指出,法律的某些部分可能会带来法律挑战。其中一项挑战可能集中在与法律涵盖的许多不同领域有关的宪法关注。专家说,法律的许多例外情况也可能是有问题的,以及它仅影响企业而非政府收集的信息的事实。


Critics say the law's exceptions permit companies to keep holding personal information on consumers in some situations, even after individuals request that the data be destroyed. For example, a company can keep personal data if it decides it needs it to finish the sales process. A company could also continue to hold information in a way that the consumer would "reasonably expect" them to.


批评人士说,法律的例外规定允许公司在某些情况下仍保留有关消费者的个人信息,即使在个人要求销毁数据之后也是如此。例如,如果公司确定需要完成销售过程,则可以保留个人数据。公司还可以以消费者“合理预期”信息的方式继续保存信息。


Joseph Jerome is a policy director at the privacy group Common Sense Media/Kids Action. He told The Associated Press that the law is "more of a ‘right to request and hope for deletion.'"


约瑟夫·杰罗姆(Joseph Jerome)是隐私组织“常识媒体/儿童行动”的政策总监。他告诉美联社,该法律“更多是'要求和希望删除的权利'。”


The law offers stronger protections for children. For example, it bans the sale of data on children under 16 without permission.


法律为儿童提供了更强有力的保护。例如,它禁止未经允许就出售16岁以下儿童的数据。


Digital experts also noted that the law leaves it up to California citizens themselves to exercise their new rights. To make the law effective, consumers will need to take direct action to "opt out" of data sales or request collected information.


数字专家还指出,该法律只允许加利福尼亚公民自己行使其新权利。为了使法律生效,消费者将需要采取直接行动以“退出”数据销售或要求收集信息。


Margot Kaminski is a professor of law at the University of Colorado who studies legal technology issues. She told the AP that many people currently do not take the time to read existing privacy agreements because they are long and complex.


Margot Kaminski是科罗拉多大学的法学教授,主要研究法律技术问题。她告诉美联社,许多人目前不花时间阅读现有的隐私协议,因为它们既漫长又复杂。


Kaminski said, "If you aren't even reading privacy agreements that you are signing, are you really going to request your data?"


卡明斯基说:“如果您甚至没有阅读要签署的隐私协议,那么您真的要索取数据吗?”


重点词汇:

Words in This Story:

digital – adj. related to computer technology, especially the internet

consumer – n. person who buys or uses goods or services

retail – adj. the activity of selling products to the public in shops or on the internet

surveillance – n. the activity of watching people carefully, often secretly, especially by an army or police force

challenge – n. an expression of disagreement with ideas, rules or someone's authority

delete – v. remove something

opt out – v. choose not to be part of an activity


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