首页 > VOA常速英语 > 常速字幕 > 【常速字幕】鸣禽或可助人类攻克语言障碍 Songbirds may help humans overcome language barriers

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【常速字幕】鸣禽或可助人类攻克语言障碍 Songbirds may help humans overcome language barriers

来源:慢速英语   时间:2019-12-10 17:13:04

The tiny brain of this zebra finch may help scientists answer questions on how people form words to talk.Like humans songbirds learn to vocalize by imitation.We’re able to not only just study the mechanisms of how vocal learning works in these songbirds,but translate those findings to humans.And the reason why is because we discovered that songbirds and humans have what we called convergent brain pathways and genes.That are specialized in them that you don’t find in things like chicken.


斑马雀小小的大脑也许能帮助科学家回答人们如何形成语言的问题。就像人类一样,鸣禽通过模仿学习发声。我们不仅能研究这些鸣禽的发声学习机制,还能将这些发现转化为人类的研究。原因是我们发现鸣禽和人类有我们称之为趋同的脑通路和基因。它们是专门研究的,你在鸡肉之类的东西里找不到。

Researchers from Rockefeller University in New York are using laser capture microscopy,


纽约洛克菲勒大学的研究人员正在使用激光捕获显微镜,


a method of isolating cells from microscopic regions of tissues and cells,to get an in-depth look at the songbirds brains.Those images are helping them understand how signals from the birds brains are similar to the process humans use when learning to talk.We find stuttering in songbirds,we can induce a Parkinson like conditioning then that causes stuttering.And then we can use that to figure out how to repair and then try to induce that in a brain like a human to see if we can repair those circuits.


从组织和细胞的微观区域分离细胞的方法,以深入观察鸣禽的大脑。这些图像有助于他们了解鸟类大脑发出的信号与人类学习说话的过程是如何相似的。我们在鸣禽中发现口吃,我们可以诱发帕金森样的条件反射,然后导致口吃。然后我们就可以用它来研究如何修复,然后像人类一样在大脑中诱导它,看看我们是否能修复这些电路。


We’re also trying to figure out ways to engineer brain circuits in a species that doesn’t have that ability,to see if we can induce it or even enhance it.And if that works we can actually try to translate that to humans as well.Jarvis says it will take years before the findings may be used to treat human speech impediments.I’ve had this hypothesis for the last ten years of how to engineer these brain circuits and predict what kind of genes,we would find that has specialized in the brain of humans and songbirds.It took us,let’s say five to seven years,so I actually identified those genes.And I think it’s gonna take us another five to seven years to actually figure out how to manipulate them.


我们还试图找出在一个没有这种能力的物种中设计大脑回路的方法,看看我们是否能诱导它,甚至增强它。如果这行得通,我们也可以试着把它翻译成人类。贾维斯说,这项发现需要数年才能用于治疗人类语言障碍。在过去的十年里,我一直有这样一个假设:如何设计这些大脑回路,预测什么样的基因,我们会发现它专门研究人类和鸣禽的大脑。我们花了5到7年的时间,所以我确定了这些基因。我想我们还需要5到7年的时间才能真正弄清楚如何操纵它们。


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