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英语听力小短文名人故事哲学思想家15:Karl Marx 卡尔·马克思

来源:慢速英语   时间:1970-01-01 08:00:00

Karl Marx

卡尔·马克思

As a student in Bonn and Berlin, Marx was greatly influenced by the philosophy of Hegel. While Marx was impressed with the Hegelian professors under whom he studied, he ultimately found himself attracted to a group of students known as the “Young Hegelians” .

在波恩和柏林求学时,马克思极大地受到黑格尔哲学的影响。他从师于一名研究黑格尔的教授,之后发现自己被一个称作“年轻的黑格尔派”的学生组织所吸引。

Although Marx desired a career as an academic at the time, his political sympathies prevented him from receiving a position in the state-controlled university system. Instead, Marx turned to journalism where his radical politics attracted the attention of Prussian censors. The publication for which he worked was shut down for its politically incorrect commentary, and the frustrated Marx traveled to Paris.

尽管马克思当时渴望研究学问,但他的政治态度使他不能从当局控制的大学中求得一职,因此马克思转向报纸,而他激进的政治思想吸引了普鲁士当局的注意。 由于“不正确”的政治评论,他所在的出版社被关闭, 沮丧的马克思只好流浪到巴黎。

Paris in 1843 was an international center of social, political, and artistic activity and the gathering place of radicals and revolutionaries from all over Europe. In Paris Marx became involved with socialists and revolutionaries. Most significantly, though, it was in Paris that Marx met Friedrich Engels, the son of a wealthy textile manufacturer in England who had become a socialist after observing the deplorable condition of workers in his father’s factories. Together, Marx and Engels began to develop the ideas which became Revolutionary Proletarian Socialism, or, as it is better known, Communism. Eventually, Marx was exiled from France in 1845 at the behest of the Prussian government for antiroyalist writings.

1843年的巴黎是社会活动、政治活动和艺术活动的国际中心,也是来自全欧洲的激进主义者和革命主义者聚集的地方。在巴黎,马克思开始参与社会主义者和革命者的活动。最重要的是,在巴黎,马克思遇到了恩格斯——这位英格兰富裕的纺织工厂主的儿子。恩格斯看到父亲工厂里的工人可悲的生存条件,后来成为一名社会主义者。马克思和恩格斯一起开始发展自己的思想, 后来成为无产阶级社会主义,即共产主义。因为反对皇室的文章,在普鲁士政府的压力下,1845年马克思被法国当局流放。

After leaving Paris, Marx traveled to Belgium where he became involved with a group of artisans. He attempted to assemble a ragtag group into a unified political organization, the German Working Men’s Association, which later became “The Communist League” . In 1847 the Communist League commissioned Marx and Engels to pen a statement of their beliefs and aims. This statement became the Communist Manifesto, which Marx zealously composed in anticipation the revolutions of 1848. When revolution did begin in Germany in 1848,Marx traveled to the Rhineland to encourage its progress. When the revolution failed, Marx returned to Paris but soon left for London where he would remain for the rest of his life.

离开巴黎后,马克思来到比利时,参与到一个手工业者的团体中。马克思想把这个松散杂乱的组织形成一 个统一的政治团体——德国工人协会,后来成为共产主义者同盟。1847年,共产主义者同盟委托马克思和恩格斯起草一份有关同盟的目标和信仰的纲领性文件,这份文件后来成为《共产党宣言》。在宣言中,马克思热切地预言1848年革命。当1848年革命真的在德国展开时, 马克思来到莱茵兰,声援革命。当革命失败后,马克思回到巴黎,但很快就去了伦敦,直到去世。

Marx died in London in 1883,still awaiting the inevitable revolution which he had predicted.
 

1883年马克思弥留之际,依然期待着他所预计的不可避免的革命的到来。