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刚果为何内战不不断

来源:慢速英语   时间:2011-06-12 11:11:08

The Second Congo War, the world's deadliest since World War II, began in the 1990s when civil war and genocide spilled out of Rwanda and into the eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. Now, eight years after the peace treaty, the fighting in the east continues. Although the old war lingers on, the nature of the battle is new.

二战以来最惨烈的战争是刚果第二次战争。这次战争始于1990年代,当时内战和种族屠杀的烽火从卢旺达扩散开来,进入了东部的刚果民主共和国。现在在和平条约签署8年后,东部的战斗仍在继续。虽然历时多年的战争仍在拖延,然而战斗的性质却与以往不同了。

Roughly the size of Western Europe, some observers say Congo has been in a constant state of crisis since 1885, when Belgium’s King Leopold II turned this land into his own personal corporation, getting rich on the backs of Congolese slaves.

刚果和西欧大小差不多,一些观察人士说,刚果自从1885年开始就处于危机之中,当时比利时国王利奥波德将这片土地划为其公司所有,通过剥削刚果奴隶充实了自己的金库。

The days of Leopold are remembered for mass murder, forced labor, rape, famine and piles of chopped off hands. Fidel Bafilemba, a researcher for Enough, a Washington-based advocacy organization, says violence against civilians in the mineral-rich countryside of eastern Congo continues today.

那个时代留给人的记忆包括屠杀、强迫劳役、强奸、饥荒和成堆被砍下的手。菲德尔.巴菲兰巴(Fidel Bafilemba)是总部设在华盛顿的权益组织“够了”的研究员,他说,在矿产丰富的刚果东部农村,针对平民的暴力仍在继续。

"Corruption, mismanagement, the violence - including rapes - this is King Leopold the Second’s legacy to the Congolese people," said Bafilemba.

他说:“腐败、管理不善、暴力--包括强奸,这是利奥波德国王二世遗留给刚果人民的遗产。”

Bafilemba and his organization are advocates against the sale of what have become known as "conflict minerals." Mining companies say there are an estimated $24 trillion worth of minerals hidden in Congolese soil, used in products as diverse as lap-tops, cell phones, food packaging and airplane engines.

巴菲兰巴及其机构倡导的是抵制销售人们所说的“冲突矿产”。矿业公司说,估计刚果地下有价值24万亿美元的矿产,这些物质可以用于制造笔记本电脑、手机、食品包装以及飞机引擎等。

From the days of Leopold, Congolese resources rarely if ever have benefited the people of Congo. Nowadays, Bafilemba says, because the mines and the roads are controlled by warring militias, the minerals pay for the conflict, and give armed groups something to fight over.

从利奥波德时代起,刚果的资源就很少造福刚果人。巴菲兰巴说,由于矿山和道路都掌握在交战的武装分子手里,矿产被用来支付冲突的费用,同时也成了武装派系争夺的对象。

And when they fight, civilians are still subjected to forced labor and mass rapes. Children are kidnapped, villages are burned and the United Nations refugee agency says millions of people have fled their homes.

在战斗期间,平民惨遭强奸,被强迫劳役。儿童被绑架,村子被烧毁。联合国难民署说,数百万人逃离了家园。

Army officials say that 80 percent of the mines in eastern Congo are still controlled by the many militias, armed groups, and rebel armies vying for power.

军方官员说,刚果东部80%的矿产资源仍然控制在民兵,武装团体以及反政府武装手中。

But the war, they say, is not about the minerals. It is a complex mixture of foreign rebel armies and local militias fighting the rebels and each other.

First, there is an internal war. Some groups are still armed in the name of political loyalties stemming from the 1960s and 70s, after the colonials left the country, and Congo became independent. Other militias come from communities locked in resource disputes.

刚果有各种武装团体。在殖民主义者离开,刚果独立之后,一些人以20世纪六、七年代的政治忠诚的名义继续持有武器。还有一些民兵组织是为争夺社区资源而成立的。

Then, there are rebel armies originally purposed to fight the governments of neighboring Rwanda, Burundi and Uganda. Long camped out in the Congolese bush, these groups have become splintered and some also have domestic agendas.

此外还有反政府武装,这些组织原本是为了抗击邻国卢旺达、布隆迪以及乌干达政府而组织起来的。这些团体长期安营扎寨在刚果的丛林之间,已经逐渐分化。

But many militant groups in Congo have no apparent agenda. They say they are fighting for freedom, but observers say they plunder villages, terrorize the people and collect illegal taxes, simply to survive.

但是刚果不少武装组织显然也没有什么具体目标,他们说他们为自由而战。观察人士说,他们掠夺村庄、恐吓民众,非法收税,只是为了生存。

Congolese Army Colonel Seraphin Mirindi says much of the problem also comes from government mismanagement. Bad governance, extreme poverty and lingering political rivalries continue to fuel the conflict, he says. And as long as the Congolese countryside remains one of the poorest places on earth, people will continue to fight for resources.

刚果陆军上校米林迪(Seraphin Mirindi )说,很多问题来自政府管理不利。管理不当、极端穷困以及政治派别对立持续为冲突火上加油。他说,只要刚果农村仍然是世界上最贫穷的地方,争夺资源的战斗就不会停止。

Once an officer in one of Congo’s many militias, Mirindi joined the army after a 2008 power-sharing agreement. In an attempt to broker some kind of peace, the regular army and many of the militias agreed to merge.

米林迪曾经在刚果的一个民兵组织中任职,2008年有关方面签署了权力分享协议后,他参加了政府军。由于要达成某种和平协议,政府军和一些民兵组织同意合并。

Mirindi says the merger never really took, and the army continues to be unorganized and underpaid. When high-level militia leaders make agreements with the army, he says, it doesn’t always mean the soldiers in the bush will follow through. They may neither know, nor care what officers in the capital decide.

米林迪说,实际上并没有真正合并起来,部队仍然毫无组织,很少发军饷。民兵组织的头目与政府军达成协议并不意味着丛林中的战士们愿意服从。他们可能既不知道,也不在乎哪些官员在首都做了什么决定。

Army soldiers also commonly flee their posts out of sheer hunger, he says, and take their guns home, arming the already relentlessly divided population.

他说,政府军成员常常会因为饥饿而逃离岗位、携枪回家,为已经四分五裂的人口提供武器。

Without a strong national army, Mirindi says the continued presence of foreign rebel groups in eastern Congo, like the Democratic Forces for the Liberation of Rwanda, or the FDLR, makes peace in the region impossible.

米林迪说,刚果没有一个强有力的国家军队,卢旺达解放民主力量等外国反叛组织长期活跃在刚果东部,这个地区无法实现和平。

The current chaos is the remnant of the Second Congo War, also known as Africa’s World War. The U.N. says the war has claimed more than five million lives, mostly through disease and famine. It began in the late 1990s, when an ethnic Tutsi-led army won neighboring Rwanda’s civil war, and Rwandan refugees poured into eastern Congo.

刚果当前的混乱局面是第二次刚果战争遗留下来的,那次战争被称为非洲世界大战。联合国说,这场战争导致500多万人丧生,其中多数死于疾病和饥荒。这次战争于1990年代后期开始,当时图西族领导的军队在邻国卢旺达的内战中获胜,卢旺达难民像潮水般涌进刚果东部。

The war ended with a peace treaty in 2003, but the fighting in the east has never stopped.

那次战争最终于2003年通过达成和平协议而结束,但是东部的战斗从来也没有停止。

Jason Luneno, the president of the civil society in the North Kivu province, says while there is still killing, looting, raping and the burning of homes in the countryside, it no longer looks like a typical war.

刚果北基伍省的公民社会主席卢尼诺(Jason Luneno)说,尽管乡村现在仍然有杀戮、抢掠、强奸、焚烧房屋等现象,但再也不同于典型的战争了。

Luneno says that conflict in eastern Congo is now mainly conducted by small groups of five to ten soldiers, loosely connected with larger militias, if connected at all. There is no visible presence of the government, and state services are almost non-existent.

卢尼诺说,刚果东部的冲突目前都是只有5到10人的小型武装团体引发的,这些团体和大型武装组织有松散的联系, 如果算是联系的话。那里没有政府的存在,国家服务机构几乎等于零。

For Luneno, however, ending the conflict cannot just be a military quest. The army needs to be trained to fight off rebel armies, he says, but after that, communities in eastern Congo need food, schools, roads and other basic resources for all of them to get along.

对卢尼诺来说,结束这些冲突不仅要通过军事行动。军队应该训练如何跟反叛力量作战。他说,之后刚果东部社区需要食品、学校、道路和其他基本资源,这样人们才能和平相处。