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[翻译字幕]Health Report - Health Problems Slow Gains in US Life Spans

来源:慢速英语   时间:2011-06-23 09:58:42

健康报道 - 健康问题影响美国人预期寿命

This is the VOA Special English Health Report.

这里是美国之音慢速英语健康报道。

Americans spend more on health care than most other people. Yet a new study shows that life expectancy in the United States is falling behind other developed countries.

美国人在医保上的花费超过其它大部分国家。然而一项新的研究表明,美国的预期寿命(或人均寿命预期)已经落后于其它发达国家。

In two thousand seven an American man could expect to live about seventy-five and a half years. That was less than in thirty-six other countries. Life expectancy for American women was almost eighty-one years. They were also in thirty-seventh place among almost two hundred countries and territories.

2007年,美国男性的预期寿命大约是75.5岁,低于其它36个国家。美国女性预期寿命接近81岁,在全球近200个国家和地区中也排在第37位。

The Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation at the University of Washington studied the numbers. Professor Ali Mokdad says increases in life expectancy have slowed in the United States compared to other countries.

华盛顿大学卫生计量与评估研究所对这些数字进行了研究。阿里·穆克达德(Ali Mokdad)教授表示,与其他国家相比,美国预期寿命的增速已经放缓。

ALI MOKDAD: "We've seen an improvement almost everywhere in the world. And in countries that are developed, we're seeing a higher improvement, a faster improvement rate, than we are seeing in the United States."

穆克达德:“我们看到了世界各地预期寿命的增长。我们也看到了发达国家比美国更大的增长和更快的增长率。”

Professor Mokdad says the reason is Americans have made less progress in reducing problems like obesity and high blood pressure.
穆克达德教授表示,原因是由于美国人在减少肥胖和高血压一类问题上进展较小。

Senior citizens in Youngstown, Ohio.

The report also identifies wide differences in life expectancy rates within the United States. The researchers created maps of life expectancy in each of the more than three thousand counties.

该报告同时指出了美国各地预期寿命的巨大差异。研究人员制作了3000多个县的预期寿命地图。

Areas with the shortest expected life spans are largely in the South. Ali Mokdad says researchers know some of the reasons.

预期寿命最短的地区主要集中于南方。穆克达德称,研究人员了解其中一部分原因。

ALI MOKDAD: "Less education, less income in some of these rural counties, more likely to be smokers, more likely to be obese. They don't have health insurance, or they don't have adequate access to health care, and the quality of medical care is not as good as well."

穆克达德:“一些农业县教育水平和收入水平较低,吸烟和肥胖的可能性更大。他们没有医疗保险,或者无法获得足够的医疗保健。同时医疗保健的质量也不太高。”

In the United States, many public health matters are local responsibilities. Restrictions on public smoking, for example, differ from community to community. Some communities have more bicycle paths and other chances for physical activity, or more places to buy fresh fruits and vegetables.

在美国,许多公共健康问题都是当地的责任。例如,禁止公共场所吸烟的政策因社区而有所不同。有些社区的自行车道和体育锻炼的机会,以及购买新鲜蔬菜水果的场所都超过其它社区。

ALI MOKDAD: "A long-term investment in their community to increase physical activity and improve diet are needed in this country.”

穆克达德:“美国需要对社区进行长期投资,以提高体育锻炼和改善饮食。”

The study appears in the journal Population Health Metrics. Journal editor Chris Murray says at least one finding was unexpected.

这项研究发表在《人口健康指标》杂志上。该杂志主编克里斯·默里表示,至少有一项该研究中的发现出乎意料。

CHRIS MURRAY: "It's a real surprise to us in the study that women are faring so much worse than men."

默里:“这项研究中,女性预期寿命的境况比男性差这么多,真是出乎意料。”

Around the country, American women still live longer than men by five to eight years. But their international ranking has been falling since the nineteen nineties. Dr. Murray says women are increasingly taking risks with their health.

在美国各地,美国女性仍比男性长寿5-8年。但自上世纪九十年代以来,她们的预期寿命全球排名一直在下滑。默里博士表示,美国女性健康方面面临的风险在持续增加。

CHRIS MURRAY: "Women are now smoking more. The obesity epidemic in women is greater than in men. Progress in tackling blood pressure is much worse in women."

默里:“与男性相比,女性吸烟和肥胖症数量越来越多,在控制血压方面的进展也更为糟糕。”

In other news, the first report on the number of American births in twenty-ten shows another decrease. Births have been decreasing since an all-time high of more than 4.3 million in two thousand seven. Federal officials say state health departments reported just over four million births last year.

在其它新闻方面,首份关于2010年美国出生率的报告显示出生率再次下降。自2007年430万新生儿的历史高点以来,出生率持续下降。联邦官员表示,美国卫生部门报告称,去年新生儿数量刚刚超过400万。

And that's the VOA Special English Health Report, written by Caty Weaver. I’m Steve Ember.
___

Contributing: Art Chimes and Carol Pearson

词汇学习

1.almost adv.几乎, 差不多, 差一点; 将近

例句:In his blind haste he almost ran into the river.
      他匆匆忙忙地几乎跑到河里去了。

      In the hall it was almost dark.
      大厅里几乎漆黑一片。

almost,nearly,about,approximately,around,roughly
这些副词均有“大约,差不多”之意。
almost指在程度上相差很小,差不多。
nearly与almost含义基本相同,侧重指数量、时间或空间上的接近。
about常可分almost和nearly换用,但about用于表示时间、数量的“大约”时,实际数量可能多也可能少。
approximately多用于书面语,指精确度接近某个标准以致误差可忽略不计。
around多用于非正式场合,常见于美国英语。
roughly指按精略估计,常代替about。

2.identify vt.认出, 识别

例句:Would you be able to identify the man who robbed you?
      你能够认出那个抢你东西的人吗?

3.largely adv.在很大程度上, 大半地, 主要地

例句:This country is largely desert.
      这个国家大半都是沙漠。

4.adequate adj.充分的, 足够的

例句:There was adequate rain and snow last winter.
      去年冬天雨雪充足。

5.restriction n.约束, 限制

例句:new restrictions aimed at preventing social disorder
      旨在防止社会动乱的新限制

      All these restrictions were swept aside.
      所有这些限制都不予考虑。

6.ranking n.地位;等级

例句:He has never before featured in the top ten world rankings.
      以前他从未进入过世界排名的前10 位。

      He is making a bid to regain his World No. 1 ranking.
      他正为重登世界排名第一位而努力。

内容分析

1.Yet a new study shows that life expectancy in the United States is falling behind other developed countries.

fall behind落后; 下降; 退后

例句:He fell behind when we were climbing the mountain.
      我们爬山时, 他掉队了。

      Production has fallen behind in the last few months.
      最近几个月生产下降了。

2.They don't have health insurance, or they don't have adequate access to health care, and the quality of medical care is not as good as well.

as well也, 还有

例句:He speaks English and Spanish as well.
      他既能说英语, 也能说西班牙语。

      There may be travel expense, as well.
      可能还有旅途费用。

3.It's a real surprise to us in the study that women are faring so much worse than men.

It形式主语,真正的主语that引导的从句。

much worse than,much修饰比较级

一、much修饰比较级

修饰比较是副词much的常见用法,“much + 比较级”的意思是“更……”“……得多”。如:

It’s much colder today than it was yesterday. 今天比昨天冷得多。

It was much worse than I thought. 它比我想像的还要糟得多。

We will be a much better football team next year. 明年我们将会成为一支更好的足球队。

二、much修饰最高级

much修饰最高级应置于最高级前的定冠词之前,而不是之后。“much + the + 最高级”的意思是“最最……”“绝对是最……”。如:

This is much the most difficult. 这是最最难的。

That’s much the best plan. 那绝对是最好的计划。

Of the three boys Nick is much the cleverest. 这三个男孩中,尼克最最聪明。

三、much修饰形容词的原级

much修饰形容词原级的情形主要见于那些由过去分词转化来的形容词。如:

I was much annoyed. 我很不高兴。

She wasn’t much surprised. 她并不太惊讶。

注:有个别非分词转化来的形容词有时也可用much修饰,但这种用法很有限,通常只见于good, different等少数几个形容词。如:

I don’t think this battery is much good. 我并不认为这种电池非常好。

The new school isn’t much different from the old one. 新学校与老学校区别不太大。

四、much修饰副词too

much too 为习语,其中的much修饰副词too;much too可视为too的加强说法,其语气比单独用too更强。如:

He spoke much too fast. 他说话说得太快了。

This is much too heavy for you to lift. 这东西太重,你拿不起来。

注意:much too与too much词序不同,用法也不同。从句法功能上看,much too的用法与too相同,但比too的语气更强;而too much在用法上则与much相同,但比much 语气更强。

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