健康报道 - 健康问题影响美国人预期寿命
This is the VOA Special English Health Report.
Americans spend more on health care than most other people. Yet a new study shows that life expectancy in the United States is falling behind other developed countries.
In two thousand seven an American man could expect to live about seventy-five and a half years. That was less than in thirty-six other countries. Life expectancy for American women was almost eighty-one years. They were also in thirty-seventh place among almost two hundred countries and territories.
The Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation at the University of Washington studied the numbers. Professor Ali Mokdad says increases in life expectancy have slowed in the United States compared to other countries.
ALI MOKDAD: "We've seen an improvement almost everywhere in the world. And in countries that are developed, we're seeing a higher improvement, a faster improvement rate, than we are seeing in the United States."
Professor Mokdad says the reason is Americans have made less progress in reducing problems like obesity and high blood pressure.
|Senior citizens in Youngstown, Ohio.|
The report also identifies wide differences in life expectancy rates within the United States. The researchers created maps of life expectancy in each of the more than three thousand counties.
Areas with the shortest expected life spans are largely in the South. Ali Mokdad says researchers know some of the reasons.
ALI MOKDAD: "Less education, less income in some of these rural counties, more likely to be smokers, more likely to be obese. They don't have health insurance, or they don't have adequate access to health care, and the quality of medical care is not as good as well."
In the United States, many public health matters are local responsibilities. Restrictions on public smoking, for example, differ from community to community. Some communities have more bicycle paths and other chances for physical activity, or more places to buy fresh fruits and vegetables.
ALI MOKDAD: "A long-term investment in their community to increase physical activity and improve diet are needed in this country.”
The study appears in the journal Population Health Metrics. Journal editor Chris Murray says at least one finding was unexpected.
CHRIS MURRAY: "It's a real surprise to us in the study that women are faring so much worse than men."
Around the country, American women still live longer than men by five to eight years. But their international ranking has been falling since the nineteen nineties. Dr. Murray says women are increasingly taking risks with their health.
CHRIS MURRAY: "Women are now smoking more. The obesity epidemic in women is greater than in men. Progress in tackling blood pressure is much worse in women."
In other news, the first report on the number of American births in twenty-ten shows another decrease. Births have been decreasing since an all-time high of more than 4.3 million in two thousand seven. Federal officials say state health departments reported just over four million births last year.
And that's the VOA Special English Health Report, written by Caty Weaver. I’m Steve Ember.
Contributing: Art Chimes and Carol Pearson
1.almost adv.几乎, 差不多, 差一点; 将近
例句：In his blind haste he almost ran into the river.
In the hall it was almost dark.
2.identify vt.认出, 识别
例句：Would you be able to identify the man who robbed you?
3.largely adv.在很大程度上, 大半地, 主要地
例句：This country is largely desert.
4.adequate adj.充分的, 足够的
例句：There was adequate rain and snow last winter.
5.restriction n.约束, 限制
例句：new restrictions aimed at preventing social disorder
All these restrictions were swept aside.
例句：He has never before featured in the top ten world rankings.
He is making a bid to regain his World No. 1 ranking.
1.Yet a new study shows that life expectancy in the United States is falling behind other developed countries.
fall behind落后; 下降; 退后
例句：He fell behind when we were climbing the mountain.
Production has fallen behind in the last few months.
2.They don't have health insurance, or they don't have adequate access to health care, and the quality of medical care is not as good as well.
as well也, 还有
例句：He speaks English and Spanish as well.
There may be travel expense, as well.
3.It's a real surprise to us in the study that women are faring so much worse than men.
much worse than，much修饰比较级
修饰比较是副词much的常见用法，“much + 比较级”的意思是“更……”“……得多”。如：
It’s much colder today than it was yesterday. 今天比昨天冷得多。
It was much worse than I thought. 它比我想像的还要糟得多。
We will be a much better football team next year. 明年我们将会成为一支更好的足球队。
much修饰最高级应置于最高级前的定冠词之前，而不是之后。“much + the + 最高级”的意思是“最最……”“绝对是最……”。如：
This is much the most difficult. 这是最最难的。
That’s much the best plan. 那绝对是最好的计划。
Of the three boys Nick is much the cleverest. 这三个男孩中，尼克最最聪明。
I was much annoyed. 我很不高兴。
She wasn’t much surprised. 她并不太惊讶。
I don’t think this battery is much good. 我并不认为这种电池非常好。
The new school isn’t much different from the old one. 新学校与老学校区别不太大。
much too 为习语，其中的much修饰副词too；much too可视为too的加强说法，其语气比单独用too更强。如：
He spoke much too fast. 他说话说得太快了。
This is much too heavy for you to lift. 这东西太重，你拿不起来。
注意：much too与too much词序不同，用法也不同。从句法功能上看，much too的用法与too相同，但比too的语气更强；而too much在用法上则与much相同，但比much 语气更强。