词汇典故 - 摇滚之都克里夫兰和汽车城底特律
Now, the VOA Special English program WORDS AND THEIR STORIES.
Many American cities have interesting nicknames. Nicknames can help establish the identity of a city. They can also spread pride among its citizens. But nicknames sometimes can make fun of something.
Cleveland, Ohio is a city in America’s Midwest. One of its earliest nicknames was Forest City. No one knows for sure who gave it this name in the eighteen thirties. But Cleveland probably had a lot of trees. This nickname became popular among local businesses in the eighteen fifties. Today, some businesses in the Cleveland area still use Forest City in their names.
|The sun sets along the Detroit skyline|
Cleveland sits next to Lake Erie, one of North America’s Great Lakes. It was once a major manufacturing city. Ships used the lake for transporting goods. In the nineteen fifties, businesses called Cleveland, the Best Location in the Nation.
However, many factories closed or moved away. Cleveland had severe financial problems in the nineteen sixties and seventies. In nineteen sixty-nine, the city became famous, but not in a good way. Cleveland’s Cuyahoga River caught on fire because of industrial wastes on the surface of the river. So in the nineteen seventies, the national media began calling the city The Mistake on the Lake.
然而二十世纪六七十年代，很多工厂关闭或搬走了，克里夫兰面临了严重的财政问题。1969年，克里夫兰开始臭名远扬，流经该市的凯霍加河表面的工业废料燃起了大火。因此二十世纪七十年代，全国媒体开始称克里夫兰为“湖面上的错误（The Mistake on the Lake）”。
Since then, Cleveland has sought to improve its image. The Rock and Roll Hall of Fame and Museum opened in Cleveland in nineteen ninety-five. So the city is proud of its latest nickname, The Rock and Roll Capital of the World.
从那时起，克里夫兰开始试图改善其形象。1995年，摇滚名人堂博物馆在克里夫兰开放。这座城市开始以“世界摇滚之都（The Rock and Roll Capital of the World）”这个最新的昵称而引以为豪。
|A view of Lake Erie with the Cleveland skyline in the background at Edgewater Beach in Cleveland|
Another city in the Midwest is Detroit, Michigan. Henry Ford started the Ford Motor Company in Detroit in nineteen hundred three. Five years later, he made the first “Model T” automobile. Within ten years, Detroit was being called The Motor City. It is still the center of the automobile industry in America.
密歇根州底特律市是另一座位于中西部地区的城市。1903年，亨利·福特（Henry Ford）在底特律创办了福特汽车公司。5年后生产出首款T型车。在不到10年，底特律被开始被称为“汽车城（The Motor City）”。直到如今它仍是美国的汽车产业中心。
Another popular nickname for Detroit is Motown. Berry Gordy, Junior started the Motown Record Corporation in Detroit in nineteen fifty-nine. African-American singers recording for the company were extremely popular in the nineteen sixties and nineteen seventies. Their records were so successful that Detroit was also called Hitsville, USA.
底特律的另一个众所周知的别名是“摩城(Motown)”。1959年，贝瑞·戈顿（Berry Gordy, Junior）在底特律创建了摩城唱片公司。二十世纪六十年代到九十年代，该公司旗下美国黑人歌手极为走红。他们的唱片如此成功以致于底特律还被称为“金曲乌托邦（Hitsville U.S.A.）”
This program was written by Shelley Gollust. I'm Faith Lapidus. You can find more WORDS AND THEIR STORIES at our website, voaspecialenglish.com.