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John Wesley Powell

来源:慢速英语   时间:2020-05-08 16:58:45

VOICE ONE:

I'M SHIRLEY GRIFFITH.

VOICE TWO:

AND I'M RAY FREEMAN WITH THE VOA SPECIAL ENGLISH PROGRAM PEOPLEIN AMERICA. EVERY WEEK AT THIS TIME WE TELL THE STORY OF SOMEONEIMPORTANT IN THE HISTORY OF THE UNITED STATES. TODAY WE TELL ABOUTEXPLORER, JOHN WESLEY POWELL. HE WAS ALSO A SCIENTIST, LANDREFORMER, AND SUPPORTER OF NATIVE AMERICAN RIGHTS.

((THEME))

VOICE ONE:

THE DATE IS MAY TWENTY-FOURTH, EIGHTEEN SIXTY-NINE. THE PLACE ISGREEN RIVER, WYOMING, IN THE WESTERN UNITED STATES. THE GREEN RIVERFLOWS IN A CURVING PATH SOUTH THROUGH UTAH AND COLORADO UNTIL ITJOINS THE GREAT COLORADO RIVER.

THE COLORADO, IN TURN, FLOWS THROUGH A HUGE DEEP CANYON. YEARSFROM NOW, THAT FORMATION WILL BE CALLED THE GRAND CANYON.

TEN MEN ARE PUTTING SUPPLIES AND SCIENTIFIC EQUIPMENT INTO FOURSMALL BOATS. THEY ARE ABOUT TO LEAVE ON A DANGEROUS, EXCITINGEXPLORATION. THE LEADER OF THE GROUP IS JOHN WESLEY POWELL.

VOICE TWO:

POWELL WRITES IN HIS JOURNAL: "THE GOOD PEOPLE OF GREEN RIVERCITY TURN OUT TO SEE US START. WE RAISE OUR LITTLE FLAG, PUSH THEBOATS FROM SHORE, AND THE CURRENT CARRIES US DOWN. WILD EMPTINESS ISSTRETCHED OUT BEFORE ME. YET THERE IS A BEAUTY IN THE PICTURE."

SO BEGINS JOHN WESLEY POWELL'S STORY OF HIS TRIP ON THE GREEN ANDCOLORADO RIVERS. IT WAS ONE OF THE GREATEST TRIPS OF DISCOVERY INTHE HISTORY OF NORTH AMERICA. HE AND HIS MEN WERE THE FIRST WHITESTO TRAVEL IN THAT AREA. UNTIL THEN, THE LAND HAD BEEN KNOWN ONLY TOINDIANS AND PREHISTORIC TRIBES.


p>VOICE ONE:

JOHN WESLEY POWELL WAS THIRTY-FIVE-YEARS-OLD. HE HAD SERVED INTHE AMERICAN CIVIL WAR. HE HAD LOST AN ARM IN THAT WAR. HE WAS ANUNKNOWN SCIENTIST, TEMPORARILY AWAY FROM HIS JOB AT A MUSEUM INILLINOIS.

JOHN'S PARENTS HAD COME TO THE UNITED STATES FROM ENGLAND. THEYSETTLED IN NEW YORK STATE, WHERE JOHN WAS BORN IN EIGHTEENTHIRTY-FOUR. THEY LATER MOVED TO OHIO. MISTER POWELL MADE CLOTHESFOR OTHER PEOPLE, AND FARMED A LITTLE, TOO. HE ALSO TAUGHT RELIGION.HIS TEACHING DUTIES OFTEN TOOK HIM AWAY FROM HOME. MISSUS POWELLBELIEVED YOUNG JOHN NEEDED THE GUIDANCE AND PROTECTION OF A MAN. SOSHE ASKED A FRIEND, GEORGE CROOKHAM, FOR HELP.

VOICE TWO:

GEORGE CROOKHAM WAS A RICH FARMER. HE ALSO WAS A SELF-TAUGHTSCIENTIST. HE KEPT A SMALL MUSEUM AT HIS HOME. IT CONTAINED EXAMPLESOF PLANTS AND MINERALS. NATIVE ANIMALS AND INSECTS. REMAINS OFINDIAN TOOLS AND WEAPONS.

FROM GEORGE CROOKHAM, JOHN WESLEY POWELL RECEIVED A WIDE, BUTINFORMAL, EDUCATION. THE BOY LEARNED MANY THINGS ABOUT THE NATURALSCIENCES, PHILOSOPHY AND HISTORY.

VOICE ONE:

IN EIGHTEEN FORTY-SIX, THE POWELL FAMILY MOVED AGAIN. THIS TIME,THEY SETTLED EVEN FARTHER WEST, IN WISCONSIN. JOHN WANTED TO GO TOSCHOOL TO STUDY SCIENCE. HIS FATHER SAID THAT IF JOHN WERE TO BESENT TO COLLEGE, IT WOULD BE TO STUDY RELIGION...NOT SOMETHING ASUNIMPORTANT AS SCIENCE.

THE ARGUMENT CONTINUED FOR THREE YEARS. THEN JOHN DECIDED TOLEAVE HOME TO SEEK AN EDUCATION.

HE SOON DISCOVERED THAT HE KNEW MORE ABOUT SCIENCE THAN ANYTEACHER HE MET. HE REALIZED THAT THE ONLY GOOD SCIENTIFIC EDUCATIONIN THE COUNTRY CAME FROM COLLEGES IN THE EAST, LIKE HARVARD ANDYALE. BUT HE WAS TOO POOR TO GO TO THEM.

VOICE TWO:

JOHN WESLEY POWELL GOT WORK AS A SCHOOL TEACHER IN ILLINOIS.WHENEVER POSSIBLE, HE WENT ON SCIENTIFIC TRIPS OF HIS OWN.

IN APRIL, EIGHTEEN SIXTY-ONE, CIVIL WAR BROKE OUT IN THE UNITEDSTATES. JOHN JOINED THE UNION FORCES OF THE NORTH. AT THE BATTLE OFSHILOH, A CANNON BALL STRUCK HIM IN THE RIGHT ARM. THE ARM COULD NOTBE SAVED.

ALTHOUGH JOHN WAS DISABLED, HE RETURNED TO ACTIVE DUTY UNDERGENERAL ULYSSES S. GRANT. GRANT WOULD LATER SERVE AS SECRETARY OFWAR AND PRESIDENT. POWELL'S FRIENDSHIP WITH GRANT WOULD HELP WIN HIMSUPPORT FOR HIS EXPLORATIONS OF THE WEST.

AFTER THE WAR, JOHN WESLEY POWELL TAUGHT SCIENCE AT TWOUNIVERSITIES IN ILLINOIS. HE ALSO HELPED ESTABLISH THE ILLINOISHISTORICAL SOCIETY. HE URGED STATE LAWMAKERS TO PROVIDE MORE MONEYFOR THE SOCIETY'S MUSEUM. HIS EFFORTS WERE SO SUCCESSFUL THAT HE WASGIVEN RESPONSIBILITY FOR THE MUSEUM'S COLLECTIONS. ONE OF THE FIRSTTHINGS HE DID AFTER GETTING THE JOB WAS TO PLAN AN EXPLORATION OFTHE ROCKY MOUNTAINS.

VOICE ONE:

POWELL GOT HELP FROM THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION IN WASHINGTON,D.C. THE SMITHSONIAN GAVE HIM SCIENTIFIC EQUIPMENT. HE GOT HELP FROMTHE ARMY. THE ARMY PROMISED TO PROTECT THE EXPLORERS IN DANGEROUSAREAS. AND HE GOT HELP FROM THE RAILROADS. THE RAILROADS AGREED TOLET THE EXPLORERS RIDE FREE AS FAR AS POSSIBLE.

POWELL'S GROUP BROUGHT BACK ENOUGH INFORMATION TO SATISFY THOSEWHO SUPPORTED IT. A SECOND, SIMILAR TRIP TOOK PLACE THE FOLLOWINGYEAR. THEN POWELL CENTERED HIS EFFORTS ON THE PLAN THAT WOULD MAKEHIM FAMOUS: EXPLORATION OF THE GREEN RIVER AND THE COLORADO RIVER.

VOICE TWO:

IT WAS A VOYAGE NEVER ATTEMPTED BY WHITE MEN. INDIANS WHO KNEWTHE AREA SAID IT COULD NOT BE DONE. BUT JOHN WESLEY POWELL BELIEVEDIT COULD. AND HE BELIEVED IT WOULD PROVIDE A WEALTH OF SCIENTIFICINFORMATION ABOUT THAT PART OF AMERICA.

ONCE AGAIN, POWELL TURNED FOR HELP TO THE SMITHSONIAN, THE ARMYAND THE RAILROADS. HE GOT WHAT HE WANTED.

VOICE ONE:

THE EXPLORERS LEFT GREEN RIVER, WYOMING, ON MAY TWENTY-FOURTH,EIGHTEEN-SIXTY-NINE. ALL ALONG THE WAY, POWELL MEASURED DISTANCES,TEMPERATURES, HEIGHTS, DEPTHS AND CURRENTS. HE EXAMINED SOILS, ROCKSAND PLANT LIFE. SINCE THE EXPLORERS WERE MAPPING UNKNOWN TERRITORY,THEY NAMED THE PLACES THEY PASSED AS THEY WENT ALONG.

THE TRIP WAS JUST AS DANGEROUS AS EXPECTED, PERHAPS MORE.

THE RIVERS WERE FILLED WITH ROCKY AREAS AND WATERFALLS.SOMETIMES, THE BOATS OVERTURNED. ONE OF THE BOATS BROKE IN TWOAGAINST A BIG ROCK. THE EXPLORERS SUFFERED FROM A HOT SUN, AND COLDRAIN. THEY LOST MANY OF THEIR SUPPLIES. YET THEY PUSHED ON.

VOICE TWO:

ON AUGUST THIRTEENTH, EIGHTEEN-SIXTY-NINE, THEY REACHED THE MOUTHOF A GREAT CANYON. ITS WALLS ROSE MORE THAN A KILOMETER ABOVE THEM.POWELL WROTE IN HIS JOURNAL:

"WE ARE NOW READY TO START ON OUR WAY DOWN THE GREAT UNKNOWN.WHAT WATERFALLS THERE ARE, WE KNOW NOT. WHAT ROCKS LIE IN THE RIVER,WE KNOW NOT. WE MAY IMAGINE MANY THINGS. THE MEN TALK AS HAPPILY ASEVER. BUT TO ME, THERE IS A DARKNESS TO THE JOY."

THE TRIP THROUGH THE GREAT CANYON WAS MUCH THE SAME AS THEEARLIER PART OF THE TRIP. FOR A TIME, THE COLORADO RIVER WIDENED.THE EXPLORERS WERE ABLE TO TRAVEL LONG DISTANCES EACH DAY. THEN THECANYON WALLS CLOSED IN AGAIN. ONCE MORE, THE GROUP BATTLED RAPIDS,ROCKS AND WATERFALLS.

CONDITIONS GREW SO BAD THAT THREE OF THE MEN LEFT TO TRY TO REACHCIVILIZATION OVERLAND. TWO DAYS LATER, THE REST OF THE GROUP SAILEDOUT OF THE DANGERS OF THE GRAND CANYON.

VOICE ONE:

THE STORY OF THE BRAVE EXPLORERS WAS PRINTED IN NEWSPAPERS ALLOVER THE COUNTRY. JOHN WESLEY POWELL BECAME FAMOUS.

POWELL'S EXPLORATIONS LED TO THE CREATION OF THE UNITED STATESGEOLOGICAL SURVEY IN EIGHTEEN SEVENTY-NINE. THE SURVEY BECAMERESPONSIBLE FOR ALL MAPPING AND SCIENTIFIC PROGRAMS OF AMERICANLANDS.

POWELL'S INTERESTS, HOWEVER, WERE BECOMING WIDER THAN JUST THEGEOLOGY OF THE LAND. HE FOUND HIMSELF GROWING DEEPLY INTERESTED INTHE PEOPLE WHO LIVED ON THE LAND. ON EVERY FUTURE TRIP, HE VISITEDINDIAN VILLAGES. HE TALKED TO THE PEOPLE, AND LEARNED ABOUT THEIRCULTURE AND HISTORY. HE HELPED ESTABLISH A BUREAU OF AMERICANETHNOLOGY WITHIN THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION TO COLLECT INFORMATIONABOUT THE INDIAN CULTURES. POWELL HEADED THE BUREAU FOR MORE THANTWENTY YEARS.

IN A MESSAGE TO CONGRESS, POWELL EXPLAINED WHY HE FELT THE BUREAUWAS SO IMPORTANT:

"MANY OF THE DIFFICULTIES BETWEEN WHITE MEN AND INDIANS AREUNNECESSARY, AND ARE CAUSED BY OUR LACK OF KNOWLEDGE RELATING TO THEINDIANS THEMSELVES. THE FAILURE TO RECOGNIZE THIS FACT HAS BROUGHTGREAT TROUBLE TO OUR MANAGEMENT OF THE INDIANS."

VOICE TWO:

JOHN WESLEY POWELL'S SCIENTIFIC STUDIES OF WESTERN LANDS SHAPEDHIS IDEAS OF HOW THOSE LANDS SHOULD BE USED. HE PROPOSED PROGRAMS TOCONTROL BOTH CROP FARMING AND CATTLE RAISING. HE WAS ESPECIALLYCONCERNED ABOUT WATER SUPPLIES.

MANY OF JOHN WESLEY POWELL'S IDEAS WERE FAR AHEAD OF HIS TIME.CONGRESS REJECTED POWELL'S PROPOSALS FOR LAND AND WATER USE. HE DIEDIN NINETEEN-OH-TWO. YEARS LATER HIS IDEAS WERE SIGNED INTO LAW.

((THEME))

VOICE ONE:

THIS IS SHIRLEY GRIFFITH .

VOICE TWO:

AND THIS IS RAY FREEMAN. JOIN US AGAIN NEXT WEEK AT THIS TIME FORANOTHER PEOPLE IN AMERICA PROGRAM IN SPECIAL ENGLISH ON THE VOICE OFAMERICA.