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[翻译字幕]Agriculture Report - Big Investors, Small Farmers in Africa: a Fair Deal?

来源:慢速英语   时间:2012-01-10 11:14:00

农业报道 - 非洲大投资者和小农户之间的不公平交易

This is the VOA Special English Agriculture Report.

这里是美国之音慢速英语农业报道。

Foreign investment in African land is growing. Countries like China, Saudi Arabia and South Korea are leasing or buying millions of hectares to grow food for their people.

对非洲土地的外商投资持续增加。中国、沙特和韩国等国家租赁或购买了数百万公顷土地为本国人民种植粮食。

Research shows that many large land deals lack protections for small farmers. Contracts may guarantee leases for up to ninety-nine years, leaving local people without land for generations.

研究表明,多数大型土地交易缺乏对小农户的保护。合同可能担保了长达99年的租赁期,使得当地人一连数代人都没有自己的土地。

Better practices balance exports with local food needs and give farmers ways to enforce promises by investors. They also make clear what kinds of jobs and how many jobs will be created. Smallholders can gain influence if they form cooperatives or unions or have the support of nongovernmental organizations.

更好的做法平衡了出口和当地粮食需求,并给了农民执行投资者承诺的途径。他们也弄清楚了这会创造什么类型的工作,会有多少工作。如果组成合作社、工会,或者有非政府组织的帮助,小农户就能获得影响力。

There are different business models for cooperation between investors and local farmers. Lorenzo Cotula is a senior researcher at the International Institute for Environment and Development in London. One popular method, says Mr. Cotula, is contract farming.

在投资者和当地农民的合作中有几种不同的商业模式。Lorenzo Cotula是伦敦国际环境与发展研究所一名高级研究员。Cotula先生说一种常见模式是订单农业。

LORENZO COTULA: "Contract farming has been around for a very long time and which essentially involves a company providing credit, inputs like seeds and fertilizers and training and all that, and then buying produce from the farmers at a fixed price when harvest time comes."

LORENZO COTULA:“订单农业已经存在很长一段时间,它主要包括公司提供信贷,以及种子、化肥和培训等投入,然后在收获季节以固定价格收购农民的产品。”

Companies usually deduct the cost of the inputs from the final purchase price. He says contract farming represents up to sixty percent of tea and sugar farming in Kenya and one hundred percent of cotton farming in Mozambique.

公司通常会从最终收购价格中扣除成本。他说,订单农业代表了肯尼亚高达60%的茶叶和蔗糖种植,以及莫桑比克100%的棉花种植。

Contract farming may give farmers more access to markets for high-value crops. But Mr. Cotula found that contracts often go to wealthier farmers. Poorer farmers often work as labor on the contracted farms.

订单农业能给农民提供更多进入高价值农作物市场的途径。但Cotula先生表示,订单通常给了富农。贫农通常都在承包农场中担任劳动力。

The price that companies pay to farmers may be low, and companies might not honor purchase agreements when market conditions change.

公司支付给农民的价格可能会很低,而且当市场情况发生变化时,公司可能不会履行收购协议。

Also, growers may go into debt when the company deducts payments for inputs from the final purchase price.

此外,当公司从最终收购价扣除成本时,种植户可能会陷入债务。

Another business model is a joint venture. Lorenzo Cotula says an equity stake, or share of ownership, in a business can give communities a voice in decision-making. It can also provide income in the form of dividend payments.

另一种商业模式是合资企业。Cotula说,企业股权能够为民众提供参与决策的机会,还能提供股息形式的收入。

But a practice called "transfer pricing" can make those dividends disappear. Prices are inflated or deflated in deals with companies linked to the partner in the joint-venture. This practice reduces profits for the joint-venture company and dividends for smallholder partners.

但一种被称为“转让定价”的做法会使股息消失。在与合资企业合作者相关联公司的交易中价格会虚高。这种做法降低了合资公司的利润,以及给小农户合作者的股息。

As a solution, contracts may require fair market prices for sales to partners.

作为一种解决方案,向合作者销售时,合同需要有一个公平的市场价格。

And that's the VOA Special English Agriculture Report. I'm Jim Tedder.
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Contributing: William Eagle

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