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[字幕]Agriculture Report - Friends With Benefits, in the Plant World

来源:慢速英语   时间:2012-02-28 12:07:46

农业报道 - 植物世界的互惠互利

This is the VOA Special English Agriculture Report.

这里是美国之音慢速英语农业报道。

Companion planting is the idea that some kinds of plants can help each other grow. Plants that are compatible together generally have similar needs in terms of nutrients, soil and moisture levels.

混栽的想法在于某些种类的植物有助于彼此生长。互相兼容的植物一般在养分、土壤和水分含量上有类似需求。

Advice about which plants are compatible is sometimes based more on tradition than proof. But experts say there is evidence to support certain combinations. These can improve harvests, reduce disease and help with pest control by attracting helpful insects.

有关哪些植物能够互相兼容有时候更多取决于传统而不是论证。但专家表示某些组合有证据作为支持。这些组合可以提高收成、减少疾病,并且通过吸引益虫来帮助控制虫害。

For example, some kinds of soil bacteria take nitrogen from the air and make it into a form that plants can use. The plants hold the nitrogen in their roots. Legumes are especially good at this nitrogen-fixing. Then any crops that share the same space as the legumes can get the nitrogen as the roots decompose.

例如,某些类型的土壤细菌从空气中吸收氮并将其转化成为一种植物能够利用的形式。这类植物将氮保存到根部,豆类尤其擅长于这样固氮。这样共享土壤的任何作物,例如豆类,可以在根部分解时获得这些氮。

Beans and potatoes can also share territory well because their roots reach different levels in the soil. Deep-rooted vegetables get nutrients and moisture from lower down in the soil, so they do not compete with plants with shallower roots.

菜豆和马铃薯也能很好地分享领土,因为它们的根在土壤中的深度不同。深根类蔬菜从更深的土壤中获得养分和水分,因此它们不会与浅根植物竞争。

But some plants placed together may harm each other's development. For example, tomatoes do not like wet soil but watercress does, so you would probably want to keep them separated.

但有些植物放到一块可能会损害各自的发展。例如,西红柿不喜欢潮湿的土壤,但豆瓣菜却喜欢潮湿的土壤,所以你可能需要将它们分开。

Some kinds of produce should be kept apart even after being harvested. This is because of ethylene gas. Ethylene is a plant hormone that can cause some foods to ripen too quickly. Apples release ethylene gas. Apricots, melons and tomatoes also release a lot of ethylene. Some vegetable are easily affected by ethylene, including asparagus, broccoli, cabbage and cucumbers.

某些种类的农产品即使在收获后也应当隔离开。这是因为乙烯。乙烯是一种植物激素,能够导致一些食物成熟太快。苹果会释放乙烯。杏、甜瓜和西红柿也释放乙烯。有些蔬菜很容易受乙烯影响,其中包括芦笋,西兰花,白菜和黄瓜。

This risk of ripening too soon is why markets often separate high ethylene-producing foods from those that are sensitive to the gas.

这种过快催熟的风险就是市场上经常将产生乙烯多的食物和对乙烯敏感的食物分开的原因。

But if you put an apple in a bag with a green banana, the ethylene from the apple will make the banana ready to eat sooner.

但如果你将一个苹果和未熟的香蕉放进一个袋子里,苹果释放的乙烯将使香蕉很快可以食用。

What about peaches, plums and nectarines that are too firm to eat? These kinds of fruit do not need any help from an apple -- they release enough ethylene to ripen themselves. But that does not mean there is no way to get the job done faster.

桃子、李子、油桃吃起来太硬怎么办?这类水果不需要苹果帮忙,它们能够释放足够多的乙烯使自身成熟。但这并不意味着没办法使这个成熟的过程更快一些。

Growers suggest placing the fruit in a fruit bowl or in a paper bag with the top folded over. Keep the fruit at room temperature, out of direct sunlight. Once the fruit is soft enough to your liking, either use it or put it in the refrigerator to keep it from getting too ripe. Yuck.

种植者建议将这些水果放入水果盘或纸袋里并盖好。将这些水果保持在室温下避免阳光直射。一旦水果软到你喜欢的程度,要么吃了它,要么把它放入冰箱以防止它变得太熟。

And that’s the VOA Special English Agriculture Report, written by Jerilyn Watson. I’m Jim Tedder.

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