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[翻译字幕]Economics Report - How Gold Became the Gold Standard for Trade

来源:慢速英语   时间:2012-04-07 09:30:19

经济报道 - 黄金是如何成为贸易金本位的?

This is the VOA Special English Economics Report.

这里是美国之音慢速英语经济报道。

The best example of something is often called the "gold standard." It sets the standard against which other things are measured. In economics, the term describes how major trading nations once used gold to set currency values and exchange rates. Many nations continued to use the gold standard until the last century.

最好的事物范例通常被称为“黄金标准”(在经济学中翻译成金本位),它规定了其它事物的衡量标准。在经济学中,这个术语描述了贸易大国曾经如何使用黄金设定货币价值和汇率。直到上世纪,还有许多国家继续奉行金本位。

In the United States, people could exchange paper money for gold from the eighteen seventies until nineteen thirty-three. Then-President Richard Nixon finally disconnected the dollar from the value of gold in nineteen seventy-one. From time to time, some politicians call for a return to the gold standard.

从19世纪70年代到1933年,美国人们可以以纸币兑换黄金。随后,尼克松总统终于在1971年宣布美元脱离黄金价值。一些政治家不时呼吁回归金本位。

But in nineteen seventy eight, the International Monetary Fund ended an official gold price. The IMF also ended the required use of gold in transactions with its member countries.

但在1978年,国际货币基金组织终结了黄金官价(制度)。国际货币基金组织还同时不再要求其成员国之间使用黄金进行交易。

Since that time, gold prices have grown. But the growth was uneven. Prices -- uncorrected for inflation – continue near record highs. Gold is trading above one thousand six hundred dollars an ounce. An ounce is about twenty-eight grams.

从那时起,黄金价格开始上涨,但并非均衡上涨。未经过通货率修正的黄金价格目前仍接近历史高位。黄金交易每盎司价格在1600美元以上。一盎司约为28克。

But people keep buying. Some people are "gold bugs." These are investors who say people should buy gold to protect against inflation.

但人们仍不断购买黄金。有些人是“黄金信徒”。这些投资者认为人们应该购买黄金预防通货膨胀。

People have valued gold for thousands of years. The soft, dense metal polishes to a bright yellow shine and resists most chemical reactions. It makes a good material for money, political power -- and, more recently, electrical power. If you own a device like a mobile phone or a computer, you might own a little gold in the wiring.

几千年来人们都重视黄金价值。这种柔软、密度大的金属闪耀着亮黄色光芒,能抵抗大部分化学反应。这使它成为金钱和政治权力的良好材料 -- 最近还用于电子方面。如果你拥有手机、电脑一类的设备,这些设备的线路板上就有少量黄金。

The gold standard was the subject of one of the best-known speeches in American political history. It took place at the eighteen ninety-six Democratic National Convention in Chicago.

金本位是美国政治史上最著名的一次演讲的主题。这次演讲发生在1896年芝加哥举行的民主党全国代表大会上。

William Jennings Bryan wanted the country to use both gold and silver as money. The idea was to devalue the dollar and make it easier for farmers to pay their debts. Here is Bryan reading his speech much later, in nineteen twenty-one.

威廉·詹宁斯·布赖恩(William Jennings Bryan)希望美国同时使用黄金和白银作为货币。该想法是为了让美元贬值,从而使农民还贷更为容易。以下是很久以后的1921年,布赖恩再次宣读他的演讲。

WILLIAM JENNINGS BRYAN: "You shall not press down upon the brow of labor this crown of thorns. You shall not crucify mankind upon a cross of gold."

布赖恩:“我们不该把带刺的王冠戴上劳动人民的额头,不该把人类钉在黄金的十字架上。”

The speech made William Jennings Bryan famous. He was a presidential candidate three times. But he never won.

这次演讲使得布赖恩声名鹊起,他三次作为总统候选人,但从未当选。

And that's the VOA Special English Economics Report, written by Mario Ritter. To read and hear news and information for people learning English, and for transcripts go to voanews.cn. You can also find MP3s and now PDFs of our programs for e-readers. And follow us on Facebook, YouTube and iTunes at VOA Learning English. I'm Christopher Cruise.

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