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[翻译字幕]THE MAKING OF A NATION - American History: Colonizing Expands in the American Northeast

来源:慢速英语   时间:2012-10-11 08:09:32

建国史话 (6):扩大殖民地

From VOA Learning English, this is THE MAKING OF A NATION – American history in Special English. I’m Steve Ember.

This week in our series, we tell the story of the European settlers who established colonies in the American Northeast in the sixteen hundreds.

The Puritans were one of the largest groups from England to settle in the area known as Massachusetts. They began arriving in sixteen thirty. The Puritans had formed the Massachusetts Bay Company in England. The king had given the company an area of land between the Charles and Merrimack rivers.

The Puritans were Protestant Christians who had split from the Anglican Church. They wanted to change the church to make it more holy -- more pure, in their eyes. The Puritans were able to live as they wanted in Massachusetts. Soon they became that area's largest religious group from Europe. By sixteen ninety, fifty thousand people were living in Massachusetts.

Puritans thought their faith was the only true religion and that everyone should believe in it. They also believed that church leaders should lead the local government, and that all people in the colony should pay to support the Puritan church. The Puritans thought it was the job of government leaders to tell people what to believe.

But some people disagreed with the Puritans who became leaders of the colony. One of those who disagreed was a Puritan minister named Roger Williams.
 

The Merrimack River in Massachusetts

Roger Williams believed, as all Puritans did, that other European religions were wrong. He thought the spiritual traditions of the Native Americans were wrong, too. But he did not believe in trying to force others to agree with him. He thought that it was a sin to punish or kill anyone in the name of Christianity. And he thought that only members of the church should have to pay to support the church.

Roger Williams began speaking and writing about his ideas. He wrote a book arguing that it was wrong to punish people for having different beliefs. Then he declared that the European settlers were stealing land that belonged to the Indians. He said the king of England had no right to let people settle on land that was not his.

The Puritan leaders of the Massachusetts Bay Colony forced Roger Williams to leave the colony in sixteen thirty-six. He traveled south. He bought land from local Indians and started a city, Providence. The English Parliament gave him permission to establish a new colony, Rhode Island, with Providence as its capital. As a colony, Rhode Island accepted people of all religious beliefs, including Catholics, Quakers, Jews and even people who did not believe in God.

Roger Williams also believed that governments should have no connection to a church. This idea of separating church and state was new. Later it would become one of the most important of all the governing principles of American democracy.

Other colonies were started by people who left Massachusetts to seek land. One of those colonies was Connecticut. A group led by a Puritan minister named Thomas Hooker left Boston in sixteen thirty-six. They moved inland and settled near the Connecticut River. Others soon joined them.

Other groups from Massachusetts traveled north to find new homes. The king of England had given two friends a large piece of land in the north. The friends divided it. John Mason took what became the colony of New Hampshire. Ferdinando Gorges took the area that later became the state of Maine. Maine was never a colony -- it remained a part of Massachusetts until the United States was established in seventeen seventy-six.

The area that became New York State was settled by the Dutch. They called it New Netherland. Their home country, the Netherlands, was a great power, with colonies all over the world. A business called the Dutch West India Company owned most of the colonies.

The Dutch claimed American land because of explorations by Henry Hudson, an Englishman working for the Netherlands. The land the Dutch claimed was between the areas settled by the Puritans in the north and the Anglican tobacco farmers in the south.

The Dutch were not interested in settling the territory. Instead, they wanted to earn money. The Dutch West India Company built trading posts on the rivers claimed by the Netherlands. Indians brought animal skins to these posts for use in making goods for buyers back in Europe.

In sixteen twenty-six, the Dutch West India Company bought two islands from the local Indians. The islands were Manhattan and Long Island. The Dutch paid for Manhattan with goods worth only about twenty-four dollars.

The Dutch West India Company tried to find people to settle in America. But few Dutch wanted to leave Europe. So the colony welcomed people from other colonies, and other countries. These people built a town on Manhattan Island. They called it New Amsterdam. It was soon full of people who had arrived on ships from faraway places. Up until this time the population was mostly Dutch and British. But now one could hear as many as eighteen different languages spoken in New Amsterdam.

In sixteen fifty-five, the governor of New Netherland took control of a nearby Swedish colony on Delaware Bay. Nine years later, the English did the same to the Dutch. The English seized control of New Amsterdam and renamed it New York. That ended Dutch control of the territory that is now the states of New York, New Jersey and Delaware.

Most of the Dutch in New Amsterdam did not leave after it became New York. The English allowed everyone to stay. They let the Dutch have religious freedom. The Dutch were just not in control anymore.

The Duke of York owned the area now. He was the brother of King Charles the Second of England. The king gave some of the land near New York to two of his friends. Sir George Carteret and Lord John Berkeley established a colony. They called it New Jersey, after the English island where Carteret was born.

The two men wrote a plan of government for their colony. It created an assembly that represented the settlers. It provided for freedom of religion. Men could vote in New Jersey whatever their religion. Soon, people from all parts of Europe were living in New Jersey. Then King Charles took control of the area. He sent a royal governor to rule. But the colonists were still allowed to make their own laws through their elected assembly.

The king of England did the same in each colony he controlled. He collected taxes from the people who lived there, but allowed them to govern themselves.

One religious group that was not welcome in England was the Quakers. Quakers call themselves Friends. They believe that everyone has an inner light that leads them to God. Quakers believe they do not need a religious leader to tell them what is right. So, they had no clergy.

Quakers believe that all people are equal. The Quakers in England refused to recognize the king as more important than anyone else. They also refused to pay taxes to support the Anglican Church.

Quakers believe that killing is always wrong. So they would not fight even when they were forced to join the army. They also refused to promise their loyalty to a king or a government or a flag -- only to God.

For all these reasons, the English did not like the Quakers. Many Quakers wanted to leave England, but they were not welcome in most of the American colonies. One Quaker found a solution. His name was William Penn.

William Penn was not born a Quaker. He became one as a young man. His father was an Anglican, and a good friend of the king.

King Charles borrowed money from William's father. When his father died, William Penn asked that the debt be paid with land in America. In sixteen eighty-one, the king gave William Penn land which the King's Council named Pennsylvania, meaning Penn's woods in Latin.

The Quakers now had their own colony. William Penn said the colony should be a place where everyone could live by Quaker ideas.

That meant treating all people as equals and honoring all religions. It also meant that anyone could be elected as a leader. In most other colonies, people could believe in any religion, but they could not vote or hold office unless they were a member of the majority church. In Pennsylvania, all religions were equal.

The colonizing of America also spread to the south. The farming economies of these areas came to depend on slavery as a source of labor. It would also lead, two centuries later, to a civil war that nearly tore the nation apart. Slavery in the southern colonies will be our story next week.

You can find our series online with transcripts, MP3s, podcasts and pictures at www.voanews.cn. You can also follow us on Facebook and Twitter at VOA Learning English. I’m Steve Ember, inviting you to join us again next week for THE MAKING OF A NATION -- American history in VOA Special English.

清教徒是英国在北美大陆东北地区--现在的美国麻萨诸塞州--定居人数最多的群体之一。清教徒1630年开始陆续抵达。他们在英国成立了麻萨诸塞湾公司。英国国王把从查尔斯河到梅里马克河之间的土地赐给了他们。

清教徒也是新教信徒,但是他们不认同圣公会,希望对圣公会厉行改革,因此决定离开英国。他们在新大陆定居下来后,可以按照自己的愿望生活,并逐渐发展为规模最大的宗教团体。到了1690年的时候,麻萨诸塞州已经有了五万人。

清教徒认为,他们的宗教是唯一纯正的宗教,所有人都应该成为信徒。他们同时主张,教会领袖应该担任地方官员,殖民地的所有人都应该出钱支持教会。他们觉得,政府官员的职责之一就是要告诉民众应该信仰什么。不过,也有人不认同这些成为殖民地领袖的清教徒的意见,罗杰·威廉姆斯牧师就是其中之一。

跟所有清教徒一样,罗杰·威廉姆斯也认为其他欧洲宗教都是错误的,印第安土著居民的信仰也是错误的,但是他不同意强迫他人接受自己的看法,认为以基督教的名义去惩罚或杀人是罪孽,认为只有教会成员才有义务出钱支持教会。

罗杰·威廉姆斯通过演说和发表文章来宣扬自己的理念。他著书指出,因为信仰不同而惩罚别人是错误的。他还提出,欧洲定居者是在盗取印第安人的土地,英国国王没有权力把属于印第安人的土地划拨给臣民,让他们在那里定居。

在麻萨诸塞湾殖民地清教徒领袖的逼迫下,罗杰·威廉姆斯1636年离开麻萨诸塞南下。他从当地印第安人手中买下一片土地,建立了一个叫普罗维登斯的新城市。英国议会授权他以普罗维登斯为首府,创办一个新殖民地--罗德岛,这个殖民地接纳各种宗教信仰的人,包括天主教、贵格会教徒、犹太人,甚至是无神论者。

罗杰·威廉姆斯还相信政教分离,这种新观念日后逐渐发展成了美国最重要的治国理念之一。

很多人为了土地,离开麻萨诸塞,建立了其他殖民地,康涅迪格就是其中之一。一些人在清教徒牧师托马斯·胡克的带领下于1636年离开波士顿向西走,在靠近康涅迪格河的地方定居下来。另外一些人在麻萨诸塞以北建立了家园。英国国王把北面的一大片土地赐给两个好友。梅森建立了后来的新罕布什尔殖民地,戈吉斯建立了后来的缅因,但缅因始终没有发展成为独立的殖民地,仍旧是麻萨诸塞的一部分,直到美国建国为止。

荷兰殖民者定居在今天的美国纽约州一带,他们把那里称为新荷兰。当时荷兰实力雄厚,在世界上很多地方都建立了殖民地,大部分殖民地都归“荷兰西印度公司”所有。荷兰人在北美大陆上占据的土地要归功于英国探险家亨利·哈得孙。

荷兰领地位于北部清教徒和南部圣公会烟草种植者之间。荷兰人并不想在这片土地上定居,他们只想赚钱。荷兰西印度公司沿水路建立了很多交易站,并于1626年从当地印第安人手里买下了两个岛屿,也就是今天的曼哈顿岛和长岛。据说,这两个岛是用价值大约24美元的东西换来的。荷兰西印度公司希望找人在岛上定居,但是荷兰人都不愿意离开欧洲,荷兰殖民地因此向其他国家和其他殖民地的人开放。他们在曼哈顿岛上建立了一个小镇,叫新阿姆斯特丹。很快,这里就挤满了从很远的地方坐船来的人,据说当时在新阿姆斯特丹能听到18种不同的语言。1655年,新荷兰殖民地的总督占领了附近德拉瓦湾的一个瑞典殖民地。1664年,新阿姆斯特丹又被英国人占领,改称纽约,从此结束了荷兰对目前纽约、新泽西和德拉瓦一带的殖民控制。

不过,英国人允许原来的殖民者留下,让他们享受宗教自由,所以大部分荷兰人都没有离开。这片殖民地当时归约克伯爵所有,他是英国国王查尔斯二世的兄弟。查尔斯二世还把纽约附近的土地赐给了两个好友,卡特雷特爵士和伯克利勋爵。他们称其为新泽西。新泽西是英国的一个岛屿,是卡特雷特爵士出生的地方。卡特雷特爵士和伯克利勋爵制定了一份治理新泽西的政府规划,建立了一个定居者代表会议,保证宗教自由,而且不论宗教信仰,男性一律享有投票权。没过多久,新泽西殖民地就住满了欧洲各地的移民。查尔斯国王后来接管了这片地区,派皇家总督统治,但是当地的殖民者可以通过代表会议自行立法。英国国王对他的所有殖民地都做出了类似的安排,要求殖民者纳税,但允许他们自治。

贵格会教徒在英国十分受排斥。他们自称教友派,相信每个人心里都有一束灯光,指引他们走近上帝。他们认为,没有必要由宗教领袖来告诉大家什么才是正确的,所以贵格派没有牧师。贵格派教徒相信人生来平等,拒绝承认英国国王高人一等,拒绝纳税支持圣公会。他们认为,在任何情况下杀人都是不对的,所以即使被迫入伍,也不会使用武力。他们还拒绝向国王、政府、国旗,或是除了上帝外的任何人或物宣誓效忠。鉴于上述种种原因,英国人不喜欢贵格派。很多贵格派教徒希望离开英国,但是很多美洲殖民地都不欢迎他们。一个名叫威廉·潘的贵格派教徒改变了这一切。

威廉·潘的父亲是查尔斯国王的好朋友,是圣公会信徒,但是威廉·潘长大后皈依了贵格派。查尔斯国王曾经向威廉·潘的父亲借钱。父亲死后,威廉·潘要求国王用美洲大陆的土地还债。查尔斯国王于是把宾夕法尼亚赐给了威廉·潘,贵格派教徒因此有了自己的殖民地。这片殖民地夹在北面的清教徒和南面的圣公会信徒之间。威廉·潘说,宾夕法尼亚的每个人都要按照贵格派教徒的信仰生活,这就意味着平等对待所有人,尊重所有宗教信仰。在其他殖民地里,人们虽然享受宗教信仰的自由,但是只有多数教会的成员才能投票或是当选公职,而在宾夕法尼亚,所有宗教一律平等,所有教派的人都能出任政府官员。