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[翻译字幕]Health Report - Watching for Early Signs of Autism in Babies

来源:慢速英语   时间:2013-01-16 09:18:55

健康报道 - 儿童自闭症的早期迹象

From VOA Learning English, this is the Health Report in Special English.

这里是美国之音慢速英语健康报道。

Children with autism have difficulty with social skills and communication. They often behave in restricted and repetitive ways and have what seem like abnormally intense interests.

患有自闭症的儿童在社交技能和沟通上存在障碍。他们的行为举止往往具有局限性和重复性,同时有貌似格外强烈的兴趣。

A widely used medical guide will list autism under a new definition and name, "autism spectrum disorder." The changes will appear in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, to be published in May.

广泛使用的医疗指南将自闭症列入“自闭症谱系障碍”这一新的名称定义之下。这一变化将在今年五月出版的《精神疾病诊断和统计手册》第5版中体现出来。

The "spectrum" represents a group of developmental brain disorders, ranging from mild to severely disabling. A milder form commonly called Asperger’s syndrome will no longer be listed as a separate disorder with its own name.

谱系代表了大脑发育障碍从轻微丧失能力到严重丧失能力的一个群体。其中比较温和的阿斯伯格综合症将不再被单独列为一种疾病。

Autism is more common in boys than girls. What causes it is not clear. Scientists are studying genes and possible environmental influences.

自闭症在男孩中更为常见,其成因尚不明确。科学家正在研究基因和环境可能造成的影响。

Doctors usually cannot confirm a diagnosis of autism until a child is about three years old. Rebecca Landa is a researcher at the Kennedy Krieger Institute and Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine in Maryland. Professor Landa wanted to find out what differences in development might be seen earlier. She led a new study that observed 235 babies between six and 36 months of age.

医生通常无法确诊自闭症,直到孩子到了三岁左右。丽贝卡·蓝达(Rebecca Landa)是位于马里兰州的约翰霍普金斯大学医学院和肯尼迪克里格研究所的一名研究人员。蓝达教授希望找出发育上的早期差别。她领导一项新研究对235名年龄在6到36个月的婴儿进行了观察。
 

It’s important for parents to stay tuned in to their children’s development.

"At six months of age, the signs of some risk for developing communication and social delays, including autism, include motor delays. Like when you lay your baby on their back and you pull them by the arms gently into a seated position, the baby’s head may nod back behind the shoulders, like poor head control. So that does not mean that the baby is going to have autism, but it does mean the baby needs to have some exercises to strengthen their body. And when they strengthen their body, they are better able to play with toys and engage with people, which then goes on to help them have better outcomes."

“婴儿年龄在6个月时,沟通和社交发育迟缓,以及包括自闭症在内的这些风险的一些迹象包括动作迟缓。比如当你让宝宝躺下然后轻拉他们的手臂变为坐姿时,宝宝的头可能耷拉在背后,像是头部控制不好。这并不意味着宝宝会患上自闭症,但这确实意味着宝宝需要做一些加强身体的练习。当他们的身体加强后,他们就能更好地玩玩具以及和人们交流,这些随后会帮助他们更好的发育。”

By the time a baby is one year old, signs of possible autism include difficulty in using words and not looking eye-to-eye or reaching out to other people. By 14 months, the baby might smile less and use language less. However, Professor Landa says these signs can be so small that they might be missed during a short health exam.

当宝宝一岁时,自闭症的可能迹象包括言语困难、无法和他人对视或接触。到了14个月,宝宝可能会笑得少,说话少。然而蓝达教授表示,这些迹象如此细微,在简短的健康检查中可能会被忽视。

"It’s important for parents to stay tuned in to their children’s development, and if a parent is concerned about a child’s development, for professionals to listen to them."

“重要的是家长要继续关注孩子的发育。如果家长关心孩子的成长,专业人士听取他们的意见就很重要。”

The earlier parents notice delays, she says, the sooner they can begin doing simple things that may help improve their child’s development. For example: talking to the child about what they are doing, commenting when the child shows them something, and playing simple games that keep the child’s attention.

她说,家长越早发现宝宝发育迟缓,他们就能越早做一些可能会有助于改善宝宝发育的简单的事情。例如,和孩子聊聊自己正在做什么,当孩子向他们展示什么东西时做出评论,玩一些保持宝宝注意力的简单游戏。

慢速翻译由51VOA提供

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