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孟加拉国服装工人的劳工权益加以保障

来源:慢速英语   时间:2013-08-01 09:32:37

As It Is - Bangladesh Garment Workers' Rights Strengthened

孟加拉国服装工人的劳工权益加以保障

From VOA Learning English, welcome to As It Is. I’m Steve Ember.

Today we tell about efforts to strengthen the rights of about four million garment workers in Bangladesh.

今天,我们将讲述孟加拉国为加强约 400万服装工人权益所做的努力。

And we hear about conditions in the Congo Basin rainforest. A new report says the area is losing fewer trees than a few years ago.

另外,我们会听到刚果盆地热带雨林的状况。一项新的报告指出,这块地区的树木损失少于几年以前。

Finally, from the Model T to the Mustang, we celebrate the 150thanniversary of the birth of the man who brought the assembly line to automobile building.

最后,从 T 型车到野马车,我们将庆祝一位把流水作业线引入汽车生产的人的 150岁诞辰。

But first, to the clothing factories of Bangladesh:

不过首先,来到孟加拉国的服装加工厂。

Recent actions by the government in Bangladesh and western companies are leading to changes in the country’s garment industry.

孟加拉国政府和一些西方公司最近的举措给该国的服装产业带来了改变。

More than 1,100 workers died last April after the Rana Plana garment factory fell down in Bangladesh. The incident led to international pressure to improve conditions in factories. The pressure led Bangladesh to amend its labor law.

去年 4 月,Rana Plana 服装厂倒塌造成超过 1100 名工人死亡,这一事故引发了国际上对工厂的状况施压。压力迫使孟加拉国修订了劳动法案。

Akramul Qader is the Bangladeshi ambassador to the United States. He says the new measure will strengthen the rights of his country’s four million garment workers. Most of them are women. Mr. Qader says the legislation will let the workers form labor unions and receive other benefits, like financial aid after they retire.

Akramul Qader 是孟加拉国驻美国大使。他说,新的措施会加强该国 400 万服装工人的权益,多数是女性。Qader 先生说,这项立法将让工人形成工会,并可以获得其他福利,比如退休后的经济援助。

Kimberly Elliott is with the Center for Global Development. She says the law may help prevent another building collapse. Ms. Elliott says the measure takes steps to try to improve building safety requirements.

Kimberly Elliott 是全球发展中心的职员。她说,这项法律能帮助防止建筑倒塌事故的发生。Elliott 女士说,该措施开始尝试提高建筑安全的要求。

Such improvements can take place only if there are enough inspectors.  Ambassador Qader says Bangladesh has at least 5,000 factories. But he says the government does not know where they all are.

这些改进只有在足够的监管下才能真正实现。Qader 大使说,孟加拉国至少有5000 家工厂,但他指出政府并不知道它们的全部位置。

“We’re taking different steps now to insure that a good number of inspectors are in place so that they can go and inspect the factories and submit their reports and the government can take action.”

“我们现在正在采取不同的措施,确保足够数量的监管员能够到位。这样他们就可以去监督这些工厂,提交他们的报告,而政府就可以采取行动。”

The new law bars unequal treatment based on sex and disability. Factories are required to place five percent of profits into an employees’ welfare fund. However, that requirement does not include the export workforce, which involves a large number of workers.

新法律禁止对性别和残疾的不平等对待,并要求工厂将 5%的利润投入到雇员福利基金中。不过,这一要求并不包括数目庞大的出口劳动力。

Kimberly Elliott says that under the law, workers no longer need approval from factory owners to form unions.

Kimberly Elliott 说,在这项法律下,工人们组建工会将无须工厂所有者批准。

“There were provisions to try and avoid a problem that has been a big one in the past - (the problem of) the labor ministry sharing the names of union supporters with management who can then fire them or move them to a different factory. So that has been changed.”

“有一些规定是在防止过去出现的一个大问题——劳动部共有一些掌握管理权的工会支持者,他们可以开除工人或把他们送到另一个工厂。而这得到了改变。”

The measure was passed soon after the United States said it was suspending favorable trade treatment for Bangladesh.

该措施在美国宣布暂停对孟加拉国的一些优惠贸易政策后不久就通过了。

European retail companies recently approved a plan to accept legal responsibility for safety. The companies have ordered inspections at their factories in Bangladesh. North American retailers recently announced a separate agreement that does not hold them responsible for factory safety.

欧洲零售公司最近通过了一项接受合法的安全职责的计划。这些公司在孟加拉国的工厂安排了监管。而北美零售商最近宣布了另一项协议,不为工厂的安全负责。

As It Is is coming to you from VOA Learning English.

Congo Basin Rain Forest Losing Fewer Trees...

刚果盆地热带雨林的树木损失减缓

A new report says loss of trees in the Congo Basin rain forest is slowing down. The Congo Basin is the world’s second largest rain forest after the Amazon in South America. Scientists say the report has good news about the environment. Christopher Cruise has more.

一项新的报告指出,刚果盆地热带雨林的树木损失正在减缓。刚果盆地拥有世界第二大热带雨林,仅次于南美的亚马逊。科学家认为该报告对环境来说是好消息。Christopher Cruise 带来更多报道。

Researcher Simon Lewis is with the University College London. He says Central Africa lost about 285,000 hectares worth of forests each year during the 1990s. In the 2000s, he says, the area lost about 100,000 hectares of trees each year. He called the big drop in deforestation, “quite surprising.”

研究人员 Simon Lewis 来自伦敦大学学院。他说,在 20 世纪 90 年代,非洲中部每年会损失约相当于 28.5 万公顷的森林。21 世纪前 10 年,每年损失的树木面积约为 10 万公顷。他认为森林砍伐的大幅减少“相当令人惊喜”。

The new study is based on examination of satellite images. It found the loss of trees in the Congo Basin is lower than in other major tropical forest areas.

这项新的研究基于卫星图片的检视。它发现,刚果盆地的树木损失比其他主要的热带雨林地区要低。

Simon Lewis says the way that Central African countries have developed their economies may be partly responsible. He says the countries depend heavily on oil and mineral wealth, and are investing less in agricultural expansion.

Simon Lewis 说,中非国家发展经济的方式可能起到了一定作用。他说,这些国家极大地依赖石油和矿物资源,而在农业开垦方面投入较少。

“So we have not seen the big increase in industrial agriculture like we have seen in the Amazon for soya and in Southeast Asia for palm oil. That is not yet happening on a large scale in Central Africa, hence the low deforestation rates.”

“因此我们没有看到太多的农业产业化增长,不像我们看到的亚马逊为了亚麻、东南亚为了棕榈油所做的那样。这在中非地区还没有大范围出现,因此森林采伐率很低。”

But he says that could be changing. He notes that Central Africa is at an important period in its development, with better living conditions, more people and growing demand for food.

不过他认为这可能正在改变。他指出,中非地区正处在发展的重要时期,生活条件提高,人口增多,对食物的需求也在增加。

As these changes influence demand for commodities from agricultural land, he believes deforestation is likely to rise.

由于这些变化会影响耕地出产农产品的需求,他认为森林采伐有可能会加剧。

“In the Amazon and in Southeast Asia, really large areas of what were rainforests have been converted to do this industrial-scale agriculture.  And that may be counted as the first signs that this might be coming to central Africa.”

“在亚马逊和东南亚,确实有很大面积的热带雨林被开垦用作农业产业化。而这些变化可能是中非地区出现类似情况的早期信号。”

I’m Christopher Cruise.  

From the Model T to the Mustang, a 150 Year Birthday Note...

从 T 型车到野马车,150 岁诞辰……

Finally, Tuesday is the 150thanniversary of the birth of Henry Ford.Ford’s ideas about automobile production changed the world’s way of making cars.

最后,本周二是亨利•福特的 150 岁诞辰。福特对于汽车制造的想法改变了全世界的汽车生产方式。

Ford was born on his family’s farm in Wayne County, Michigan on July 30, 1863. But farming was not for him. At age 16, he left home to learn the trade of machinist in Detroit. His talent for mechanics and engineering earned him several good jobs. But while he worked at his jobs, he was planning to build a horseless carriage.

福特于 1863 年 7 月 30 日出生在密歇根韦恩郡的农场家庭,但农作并不适合他。16岁那年,他离开家乡,去底特律学习机械师贸易。他在机械和工程方面的天赋为他赢得了几份不错的工作。但在他工作时,他却在计划建造一个老式汽车。

Ford created the first model in 1896. A few trial versions of the car later, he established the Ford Motor Company in 1903. The famous Model T came five years after that.

福特在 1896 年制作了第一个模型,随后他尝试改进了几个版本,并在 1903 年建立了福特汽车公司。著名的 T 型车在 5 年后问世。

Henry Ford was a major American industrialist and businessman. But he probably is best remembered for the conveyer belt and assembly line.

亨利•福特是重要的美国实业家和企业家,但他最为人铭记的可能是输送带和流水作业线的发明。

This way, workers were able to put together cars by adding parts that are carried on a moving conveyor belt. The parts went directly to the worker, or workers, responsible for putting them on the vehicle. This permitted many automobiles to be produced quickly. It also enabled Ford to sell cars generally at a lower price than his competitors.

通过这种方式,工人们可将运转的传送带上的零件装配成一辆汽车。零件直接来到工人面前,而他们负责将零件装到车上。这实现了大量汽车的快速生产,还使得福特通常能以低于同行的价格出售汽车。

Between 1908 and 1928, almost 17 million Model Ts were produced throughout the world.

在 1908~1928 年间,全世界生产了将近1700 万台 T 型车。

Well, we’ve certainly had a good ride today, but my arm is kind of tired from cranking that Model T. But I think a little spin around the hills of San Francisco in the Mustang is just what the doctor ordered. Move over, McQueen.

我们今天也开车开得很愉快,不过由于驾驶 T 型车,我的胳膊有点累了。不过我觉得开着野马在旧金山的山上兜几圈应该正是医生建议的。闪开,麦奎因!

[Car chase from “Bullitt”]

We had help today in the pits from Jeri Watson and Chris Cruise. And final inspection of our shiny new vehicle was by editor George Grow.

And that’s As It Is, from VOA Learning English. Steve Ember, here. Thanks for joining us. See you next time…if I still have my driver’s license.