Hello, and welcome back. I’m Jim Tedder in Washington. On today’s program, encouraging news about some older American citizens who are making a special effort to help young people. And then we turn to Central Europe, where, after a long struggle, Croatia has finally joined the European Union. We’ll have some thoughts on how well the move will work, and hopes for the future. As It Is, a chance for you to learn English, is on your computer, and on the air.
The lack of literacy is a problem in many of the world's poorest countries. Even in wealthier nations like the United States, many children struggle to read and write. But in 19 cities across America, about 2,000 volunteers with an organization called AARP Experience Corps are helping children learn to read. The volunteers work with students in low-income areas.
文化水平低下是世界上最贫困国家的普遍问题。即使在美国这样较富裕的国家，还是有很多孩子很难学会读和写。但在美国的 19 个城市，一家名为 AARP Experience Corps 的组织有大约 2000 名志愿者在帮助孩子们学习阅读。这些志愿者帮助的是低收入地区的学生。
AARP Experience Corps combines the capabilities of two long-established groups. AARP is a nonprofit organization that represents the needs and interests of older citizens. The Experience Corps was founded to provide reading help for children from kindergarten age to third grade. In 2011, AARP joined the Experience Corps to help match the volunteer services of older adults with the needs of children trying to gain literacy. For example, eight-year-old Kenasia Howard is reading about Native Americans. She enjoys the story. But she says some words are difficult for her.
AARP Experience Corps 结合了两个很早建立的组织的职能。AARP 是一个代表老年人需求和利益的非营利组织，Experience Corps 的建立则是为了给幼儿园到三年级的适龄儿童提供阅读帮助。2011 年，AARP 加入了 Experience Corps，将孩子学习识字的需求与老年人的志愿服务结合在一起。比如，8 岁的 Kenasia Howard 正在读关于美洲原住民的故事，她很喜欢这个故事，但她说一些单词对她来说太难了。
“Big words, and sometimes small words, I forget.”
She‘s reading with Sandy Morgan, who joined the corps three years ago after retiring. Ms. Morgan has been meeting Kenasia twice a week for six months at Miner Elementary School in Washington, D.C. She says they have built a trustful relationship and made reading fun. Ms. Morgan says the children feel comfortable with their over-50 adult helpers.
她在 Sandy Morgan 的帮助下阅读，后者3 年前退休后加入了 Experience Corps。6个月来，Morgan 女士在华盛顿特区矿工小学与 Kenasia 每周见面两次。她说，她们建立了相互信任的关系，把阅读变得很有趣。Morgan 女士说，孩子们与她们这些 50 多岁的帮助者相处得很舒服。
“Most of us are parents and grandparents. We get through to them. We just talk to them calmly. But we definitely have patience. But we have learned that over the years through experience.”
When the children are reading, they may have problems centering their attention on the words. They may mix up letters or add words that are not there.
Dajah Staton, who is nine years old, faces those problems. Volunteer Linda Nelson is working with Dajah, who reads at the level of a beginner.
9 岁的 Dajah Staton 就存在这些问题。志愿者 Linda Nelson 正在帮助 Dajah 这个初级阅读水平的孩子。
Ms. Nelson says she encourages Dajah when the girl feels like giving up. Ms. Nelson tells the child that the whole world will open for her if she can read a story and understand it.
Nelson 女士说，她会在这个女孩儿想要放弃的时候鼓励她。Nelson 女士告诉这个孩子，如果她可以读一个故事并理解它的话，整个世界都会为她打开。
Dajah’s mother, Florita Staton, is grateful for the help from Experience Corps. Ms. Staton says without the corps, her daughter might be farther behind than she is.
Dajah 的母亲 Florita Staton 对Experience Corps 的帮助非常感激。Staton 女士说，没有他们的帮助，她的女儿可能会比现在的水平差得多。
The adult literacy rate in the United States is more than 97 percent. But a national reading test shows that almost 40 percent of seven- and eight-year-olds do not have basic reading skills. Studies have shown that those children are more likely to drop out of school in the future. And children from poor families are even more likely to leave.
AARP says research shows that the program helps not only the children. It also improves the skills and lives of many adults who take part.
The E.U. has a new member
Croatia recently joined the European Union. The country’s inclusion in the EU comes after a long effort. Croatia has struggled to overcome the economic and social effects of war during the break-up of the former Yugoslavia in the 1990s. Christopher Cruise provides details.
克罗地亚最近加入了欧盟。这个国家加入欧盟经历了长期的努力。克罗地亚努力克服了 20 世纪 90 年代前南联盟分裂时的战争所带来的经济和社会影响。Christopher Cruise 带来详细报道。
The sounds of celebration marked the raising of the Croatian flag as it joined the 27 other member flags at EU headquarters on July first. So how will life change for Croatians? James Ker-Lindsay is from the London School of Economics and Political Science. He says new laws passed as part of gaining EU membership have already affected daily life.
欢呼声响起，标志着克罗地亚的国旗在 7 月 1 日加入了欧盟总部其他 27 面成员国国旗。那么克罗地亚人的生活会如何改变呢？James Ker-Lindsay 来自伦敦经济与政治科学学院。他说，作为获得欧盟席位的一部分，新法律的通过已经开始影响人们的日常生活了。
“But, of course, it is that sense of actually being there, being part of the club, having that freedom of movement across the European Union.”
Full membership means that Croatia will be able to sell its products across the EU without paying export taxes. Nadan Vidosevic is the president of the Croatian Chamber Of Commerce. He says the country is joining the EU with its eyes open.
正式成员资格意味着克罗地亚可以在欧盟国家之间销售产品，无需出口关税。Nadan Vidosevic 是克罗地亚商会主席。他说，加入欧盟打开了这个国家的视野。
“We will jump in the cold water and start swimming, you know. But, we decide to jump in the water, because we believe it will be at the end, something that will make pleasure to us. What is the meaning of pleasure, it is the welfare for the citizens of my country."
But after five years of economic crisis in Europe, public opinion studies show Croatians lack excitement about belonging to the EU. Mr. Ker-Lindsay says there is little confidence in EU governance.
不过在欧洲经历了 5 年金融危机之后，民意调查显示克罗地亚加入欧盟并没有带来太多的兴奋。Ker-Lindsay 先生说，人们对欧盟的管理没什么信心。
“Polls show in actual fact, trust in European institutions is lower in Croatia than even in the United Kingdom, which is really saying something.”
Croatia is suffering through its own economic crisis. The EU has already set aside $855 million to help support Croatia this year. The EU money will aid in rebuilding cities like Dubrovnik. In 1991, the Croatian city came under attack from the Yugoslav army and navy.
克罗地亚承受着自己的经济危机。欧盟今年已经留出 8.55 亿来帮助支援克罗地亚。欧盟的这笔钱会帮助重建杜布罗夫尼克等城市。1991 年，这座克罗地亚城市受到了来自南斯拉夫海陆军队的袭击。
Croatia’s former enemy Serbia and five other Balkan nations also want to be included in the EU. The EU has called for talks on Serbian membership to begin by January.
克罗地亚曾经的敌人塞尔维亚和其他 5 个巴尔干半岛的国家也想要加入欧盟。欧盟已经要求在明年 1 月份之前对塞尔维亚的成员资格进行对话。
Croatia will gain availability to the EU market. But EU will also have the Croatian market available. Many observers say uncompetitive businesses will struggle with the competition.
Mr. Ker-Lindsay said many people in southeast Europe were unhappy when the EU won the Nobel Peace Prize last year. He said they believed EU had not done nearly as much as it could have done in the 1990’s. But he added that a lot of the area’s peace and security currently resulted directly from the process of EU’s increased size. He says that is encouraging other candidates for membership, like Serbia. I’m Christopher Cruise.
Ker-Lindsay 先生说，欧洲东南地区的很多人对欧盟去年获得诺贝尔和平奖不满。他说，他们认为欧盟甚至还没有做到他们在 20 世纪 90 年代做到的事情。不过他补充道，该地区目前的和平与安全很多都直接得益于欧盟规模的扩大。他说，这也鼓舞了其他国家对欧盟席位的申请，比如塞尔维亚。我是 Christopher Cruise。
And I’m Jim Tedder in Washington. Thank you for spending some time with us on this Thursday, the first day of August. From an historical viewpoint, this day is remembered as the birth date of Martha Burk. She was a professional gun shooter, entertainer, and close friend of cowboy Wild Bill Hickok. She was born on this day in 1903. The world knew her as Calamity Jane!
我是在华盛顿的 Jim Tedder。感谢大家在 8 月的第 1 天与我们共度周四。从历史上看，这是玛莎•伯克出生的日子。她是一位专业的枪手、艺人以及牛仔“野比尔•希科克”的好朋友。她在 1903 年的今天出生。全世界因为电影《珍妮的遭遇》而知道她。
Also, Francis Scott Key was born on this date in 1779. He is famous for writing our National Anthem.
另外，弗朗西斯•斯科特•基在 1779 年的今天出生。他因写美国国歌而出名。
The original “dead head,” Jerry Garcia of “The Grateful Dead” was born on this date in 1942. Jerry left us in 1995, but some members of the band are still performing.
“感恩而死”乐队的杰瑞•加西亚出生于1942 年的今天（该乐队的狂热粉丝称作“dead head”。杰瑞在 1995 年离开了我）们，不过乐队的一些成员仍在演出。
Stay with us. More Learning English programs are straight ahead, and there’s world news at the beginning of the hour, on V-O-A!