From VOA Learning English, welcome to As It Is! I’m Caty Weaver.
The United Nations says an estimated 1.8 million Syrians have fled their country since the Syrian conflict started two years ago. The largest number of refugees is in Lebanon. Most are women and children. Today we talk about some of the dangers they face.
联合国称，据估计从两年前叙利亚冲突爆发以来有 180 万叙利亚人逃离自己的祖国。难民人数最多的国家是黎巴嫩，大多数是妇女和儿童。今天，我们讲述她们面临的一些危险。
Refugee Women Look to the Sex Trade
About 75 percent of the Syrian refugees in Lebanon are women and children. The economic difficulty they face there is forcing an increasing number of Syrian women and girls to consider involvement in the sex trade. Some aid workers describe it as “survival sex.” Avi Arditti reports.
黎巴嫩大约 75%的难民是妇女和儿童。她们在那里面临的经济困难迫使越来越多的叙利亚妇女和女孩考虑参与性交易。一些救援人员将其称作“谋生性行为”。Avi Arditti 带来报道。
Rima ZaaZaa is with the Lebanese aid group Solidarity and Development. She is concerned about the extreme poverty faced by many refugees from Syria. She says the number of women forced to trade sex for money and food will continue to rise as the refugee population grows.
Rima ZaaZaa 在黎巴嫩救援组织“团结与发展”工作。她正在关注很多叙利亚难民面临的极度贫困问题。她说，随着难民人数的增长，被迫通过性交易得到金钱和食物的女性人数会继续增加。
“There are certain shelters that are known that the prostitution percentage is very high in these shelters, whether in Ain Helweh camp or in Sadaya, in different areas they are known.”
“有某些避难所，人们知道在这些避难所卖淫比率很高，不管是在 Ain Helweh 难民营还是 Sadaya，很多地方的人们都知道它们。”
More than 600,000 Syrians have registered with the United Nations in Lebanon as refugees. But, the Lebanese government says it believes there are more than one million in the country. By the end of 2013 that number could reach two million. So many refugees would place terrible pressure on a small country that already faces economic problems.
在黎巴嫩，超过 60 万叙利亚人通过联合国注册为难民。不过黎巴嫩政府称，他们认为该国家有超过 100 万难民。到 2013年年末，这一数字可以达到 200 万。因此，这么多难民会给这个本来就面临经济问题的小国家带来严重的压力。
Unlike Jordan and Turkey, Lebanon has refused to build new refugee camps to shelter Syrian refugees. Syrian women and girls are instead spread throughout Lebanon in empty buildings, low-cost housing and other places. Aid groups say the female refugees often face threats, including demands for sex from building owners, store owners and Lebanese officials.
Afana is a 26 year-old Syrian woman with two young children. She says it is not uncommon even for male aid workers to ask for sex. She explained through a translator what happened to her at one charity.
Afana 是一位 26 岁的带着两个小孩的叙利亚妇女。她说，即使是在男性援助人员里，要求发生性关系的也不算少见。她通过翻译人员解释了她在一个慈善团体发生的事。
“In one of the NGOs he told her that if you accept to sleep with me, if we can have the sexual relation, every time I have any kind of access to assistance it will be yours. I will have your name on it. So she started crying and went out of the NGO.”
Lebanese officials describe reports of increased prostitution as false. They note evidence from the Internal Security Forces that shows no increase in the number of trafficked women.
But aid workers agree that organized sex trafficking is not the problem in Lebanon. They say it is individual women or girls being forced by their poverty to offer sex for money or other help. And, the aid workers say many men are accepting the exchange.
Qassem Saad works for the Lebanese office of the aid organization Developmental Action Without Borders. He says Syrian women and girls are in such urgent need that they sell themselves for very little. He says that outside a Palestinian refugee camp near Sidon the price was low as 10,000 Lebanese pounds, or seven dollars.
Qassem Saad 在援助组织“无国界发展行动”的黎巴嫩办公室工作。他说，叙利亚妇女和女孩的需求太迫切了，因此会为了很低的价格出卖自己。他说，在西顿附近的一个巴勒斯坦难民营外，价钱低到 1 万黎巴嫩镑，也就是 7 美元。
“Here we have a lot of cases but also because of the taboo and because of the Islamist factions that we have inside the camp the people they are afraid to talk about these things but if you go outside the camp you will see those Palestinian and Syrian girls or women who they suffer from the poverty, they are going outside the camp and they practice these sexual activities.”
Qassem Saad’s group is working to train the Lebanese police to see these women and children as victims, instead of law breakers.
Qassem Saad 的组织正在促使黎巴嫩警方把这些妇女和儿童看作受害者，而不是违法者。
I’m Avi Arditti.
Refugee Family Life Holds Danger Also
Aid workers say the threats faced by Syrian women and children in Lebanon do not always come from strangers. Reports of abuse by Syrian husbands and fathers are said to be increasing. Syrian women say jobless men are worried and humiliated about living as refugees.
Aid workers in Lebanon say it is hard to learn how widespread violence and abuse is among refugee families. But, they say more women are seeking help and advice on how to deal with violent husbands and male relatives. The aid workers say the simple fact that women are coming forward is notable. Arab culture teaches women to avoid discussing such problems with strangers.
The non-governmental group Developmental Action Without Borders operates seven centers for women and children in Lebanon. Qassem Saad says all of the centers are seeing more Syrian women reporting examples of abuse.
非政府组织“无国界发展行动”在黎巴嫩有 7 个妇女儿童中心。Qassem Saad 说，所有这些中心都发现，越来越多的叙利亚女性开始揭发虐待事件。
“We have discovered a lot of girls particularly they suffer from sexual abuse inside their houses, particularly from the uncles, the brothers. But you know in this community, it is a Muslim community and the people, the Muslim people, they have their own problems. But they don’t want to see it. They don’t want to admit they have the problems.”
Syrian refugee families often live in extremely overcrowded conditions, in old, empty buildings or poorly-made shelters. Aid workers say there is deep anger over the living situation. They say men often express this anger though violence against the women closest to them.
Maryam is a 31-year-old mother of five. She fled with her family from their home in Damascus. She says her husband has changed toward her and their children since they arrived in Lebanon. She explains through a translator.
Maryam 是一位 31 岁的 5 个孩子的妈妈。她和家人从大马士革的家里逃难出来。她说，她的丈夫从他们到了黎巴嫩起，对她和孩子们的态度就变了。她通过翻译人员进行了解释。
“Her husband himself never used to hit any of the children. Now he will hit the children. He will scream at her. He will shout at her.”
A social worker says Maryam has also been beaten by her husband. But the worker says she does not want to admit this to a male stranger.
Many refugees are suffering from stress disorders as a result of what they experienced in Syria, including witnessing violent deaths of relatives and friends. Qassem Saad says sexual abuse and family violence is adding to the suffering of refugee women.
很多难民在遭受应激障碍，原因是她们在叙利亚经历的事情，包括见到亲人和朋友因暴力而死亡。Qassem Saad 说，性虐待和家庭暴力加重了这些难民妇女的遭遇。
“We are doing a lot of psycho-social work with them. We try to provide them by techniques how they can defend themselves and how to cope with the situation that they are living inside their houses. In some cases we are in contact with the Lebanese security because sometimes you have to protect them, to protect them by law.”
However, the law can help only protect to a point. Lebanese law does not recognize rape within marriage.
And that’s AS IT IS for today. I’m Caty Weaver. Thanks for joining us.
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