Hello! How are you today? Thanks for joining us for another edition of As It Is on VOA. I’m Jim Tedder in Washington. Tighten your seat belts and fly with us to South Africa to hear about the search for truth. If you often find yourself questioning what some politician says, then you’ll want to listen to our first report closely.
And then we’ll reach into the “in case you missed it” folder, and look back nearly five decades at something that had the entire world looking up in wonder. As It Is, sound coming out of your radio, and on your computer, As It Is ...is headed your way!
然后，我们来到“如果错过”环节，回顾将近 50 年前让整个世界在惊愕中仰望太空的事件。
You can’t always believe what people say, or write in newspapers, or tell you on the radio or television. But you knew that. Wouldn’t it be helpful to have someone always on the lookout, searching for the truth? Well, in South Africa there is a “facts watchdog,” a website that checks facts. It is called “Africa Checks.” It reports on claims made by the country’s leaders and the media. The site also investigates common statements that are repeated many times by people without evidence.
你不能总是相信人们说的话，或报纸上写的东西，或广播、电视告诉你的内容。但那是你之前就知道的，这对让某人一直密切关注、探寻真相有所帮助吗？在南非，有一个核实真相的网站 facts watchdog。它被称作“非洲核实”，它会报道该国家领导人和媒体所作的声明。该网站还调查在人们之间多次重复的没有证据的常见说法。
People often say, for example, that Johannesburg has the largest forest made by man in the world. That statement is easy to believe. The city’s greenery covers many neighborhoods. But the statement is not true! Africa Check found that the largest man-made forest is in China, next to the Gobi Desert.
Africa Check’s job is to straighten out wrong claims and political untruths. It also tries to keep stories about famous people truthful, or to provide information so the media will not publish false stories.
Julian Rademeyer is the editor of the site. He says it tries to get people to look with doubt at suspicious claims.
Julian Rademeyer 是该网站编辑。他说，它尝试让人们带着质疑看待可疑的说法。
“I think the fundamental element of our work is that we are trying to get people to question what they are told, what they read, what politicians say to them, and to look at the information and to ask ‘Where is the evidence?’ If someone makes a claim, to ask, ‘Where is the evidence to support that claim?’ Let’s actually interrogate those claims, and not accept things purely for what they are.”
Agence France Press Foundation launched the website in June, 2012. Africa Check is the first media outlet in South Africa whose single purpose is to check facts. It follows the example of popular sites in the United States like Politifact and Factcheck.
法新社基金会在 2012 年 6 月创办了这个网站。“非洲核实”是南非第一个以核实真相为目的的媒介产品。它效仿了美国的一些很受欢迎的网站实例，比如 Politifact 和 Factcheck。
Mr. Rademeyer and a researcher are the site’s two full-time employees. A team of part-time reporters also work on fact checking.
South Africa has a strong history of investigative journalism and photography from the country’s apartheid period. That was a time of legally enforced racial separation. But Mr. Rademeyer says reduced budgets and fewer reporters in the country now harm the ability to establish the truth of some claims.
“It allows public figures and it allows politicians to make claims that don’t go checked. And I think that’s where we play a role. We come in and look at those claims and we have the ability and the time to go through those claims.”
Paula Fray is the former editor of the Star Newspaper and a commentator on the media. She says Africa Check may place needed pressures on newsrooms.
Paula Fray 是《星报》的前任编辑，是一位媒体时事评述者。她说，“非洲核实”能够给新闻编辑部带来必要的压力。
“At the moment Africa Check is not known as much as I’m hoping as it is going to be known. I’m hoping that eventually journalists will be writing their stories and thinking, if my news editor doesn’t pick up that something hasn’t been verified, Africa Check might pick up that it hasn’t been verified. So I’m not going to put anything in my stories unless I can prove it.”
She hopes Africa Check will create a better culture of responsible journalism. The site also deals with stories that get repeated so often that they go unchecked.
For example, a South African musician with 175,000 Facebook followers claimed that white South Africans are being killed at frightening rate. When Africa Check looked into that story, it found that most of the musician’s claims were untrue or overstated.
比如，一位拥有 17.5 万 Facebook 粉丝的南非音乐人声称，南非白种人的被杀率令人恐惧。当“非洲核实”调查这个报道时，它发现这名音乐人的大部分叙述都是不真实的、或夸大的。
But the report also demonstrated one of the problems with South African statistics from the apartheid period. Mr. Rademeyer said crime information from that period in South Africa for white neighborhoods is generally quite correct. But he said crime reporting from homelands and townships during apartheid in the 1970s and 1980s lacked statistics.
但该报道还显示了南非数据统计在种族隔离时期的一个问题。Rademeyer 先生说，那段时期南非针对白人群体的犯罪信息总得来说还是正确的。但他表示， 20在世纪 70~80 年代的种族隔离时期，来自‘黑人家园’和黑人居住区的报道则缺乏统计。
Africa Check has also corrected claims including some about statements about traditional healing and the country’s rate of people seeking refuge.
Look! Up in the Sky! Isn’t that Ed White?
And now, a bit of history. Space history. Nearly 50 years ago this summer, some amazing happened. People around the world listened to their radios and watched their televisions to see and hear reports about a man who was risking his life, in the name of science, thousands of kilometers above us. VOA’s Christopher Cruise says he remembers it well.
下面，讲一些历史。将近 50 年前的夏天，发生了一件令人惊愕的事情。全世界的人通过广播和电视收听和收看一个人以科学之名在我们头上数千公里的高空进行生命历险。VOA 的 Christopher Cruise 说他记得很清楚。
Forty-eight years ago, astronaut Edward White became the first American to walk in space. White climbed out of his Gemini space vehicle 216 kilometers above the earth. But he remained connected to the two-man spacecraft by a seven-meter-long lifeline that gave him oxygen.
48 年前，宇航员爱德华•怀特成为了第一个在空间行走的美国人。华特在地球上空 216 公里以外从他的“双子座”宇宙飞船攀爬而出。但他仍然通过一个给他提供氧气的 7 米长的救生索与这架双人航天飞船相连。
It also let him communicate with space flight controllers on the ground.
White was having so much fun that he stayed outside the spacecraft for 20 minutes -- 8 minutes longer than planned. The flight director in Houston had to order him to get back inside.
怀特玩得太嗨了，导致他在航天飞船外面待了 20 分钟——比计划时间多了 8 分钟。休斯顿的航天指挥官命令他回去。
HOUSTON: “Gemini Four (this is) Houston. Gemini Four (this is) Houston.”
休斯顿：“双子座 4 号，这里是休斯顿。双子座 4 号，这里是休斯顿。”
GEMINI: “Let’s see what the flight director has got to say.”
HOUSTON: “The flight director says ‘Get back in!’”
GEMINI: “This is Jim. You got any message for us?”
HOUSTON: “Gemini Four! Get back in!”
休斯顿：“双子座 4 号！快回去！”
White was not the first human to walk in space. A few months earlier -- on March 18th, 1963, Soviet cosmonaut Alexi Leonov floated in space for ten minutes while connected to his Voskhod II spacecraft.
怀特不是第一个在太空行走的人。几个月前，1963 年的 3 月 18 日，苏联宇航员阿列克谢•列昂诺夫在太空漂浮了 10 分钟，同时与他的“上升”2 号航天飞船相连。
The two spacewalks showed that human beings could work outside their spacecraft. Less than two years after his historic spacewalk, Edward White died in a fire while training for another space mission.
I’m Christopher Cruise.
And I’m Jim Tedder in Washington. We are lighting the birthday candles today for, among other people, William Friedkin, the movie director who won an Oscar for the scariest film ever made …The Exorcist. If you would like to suggest another, please do so in an email. Mr. Friedkin is 74. Actor Richard Gere turns 64, and …we also remember … it is the birthdate of Charlie “Byrd” Parker, who may just have been the greatest jazz saxophone player of all time. He is remembered as one of the fathers of “bop” or “bebop.” Charlie was born in 1920, but was only 34 when he died in Rochester, New York, in 1955.
我们今天要为电影导演威廉•弗莱德金和其他几个人点燃生日蜡烛，他因为一部史上最恐怖的电影《驱魔人》赢得了奥斯卡。如果你想推荐其它影片，可以发送邮件。弗莱德金先生 74 岁了，而演员理查•基尔 64 岁了……我们还记得，今天是查理•“伯德”•帕克的诞辰，他是有史以来最伟大的爵士萨克斯风演奏家。他作为“波普”或“比波普”爵士乐的创始人之一而被铭记。查理出生于 1920 年，但他在 1955 年死于纽约的罗切斯特，年仅 34 岁。
That’s all for us today. But more Learning English programs are straight ahead. And there is world news coming your way at the beginning of the hour on VOA.