Hello, and welcome back for another edition of As It Is for the first Thursday in September. I’m Jim Tedder in Washington. Today, we focus on Zimbabwe’s leader, Robert Mugabe. What is his history? What has he done well, and not so well, as he has led his nation for over three decades?
今天我们将聚焦津巴布韦领导人罗伯特•穆加贝。他有什么历史？在他领导这个国家的 30 多年里，他哪些地方做得好，哪些地方不太好？
And then, some surprising information from the World Health Organization about food and African children. It seems that far too many young people weigh too much, not too little as you might expect. So let’s get started and travel to a country of 13 million people in the southern part of Africa.
接下来，来自世界卫生组织的一些关于食物和非洲儿童的令人惊讶的消息。看起来，还有太多的年轻孩子超重，比你预想的还要多。下面我们开始，来到这个拥有 1300 万人口的非洲南部国家。
Robert Mugabe has led Zimbabwe for 33 years. He recently was sworn-in as the country’s president for a seventh time. Mr. Mugabe won re-election on July 31stwith 61 percent of the votes. But many people say the election may have been dishonest. Months before the voting, he said, “My people need me.”
罗伯特•穆加贝领导津巴布韦 33 年了。最近，他第 7 次宣誓就任该国家的总统。穆加贝先生以 61%的票数赢得了 7 月 31 日的改选。但很多人说，这次选举可能存在舞弊行为。选举的几个月前，他说道“我的人民需要我”。
The opposition Movement for Democratic Change party boycotted the swearing-in ceremony earlier this month. At the event, President Mugabe promised to serve Zimbabwe for another five years. That means he will be in office until he is 94 years of age. And, he plans to seek re-election after that. Mr. Mugabe once said he would serve until age 100.
反对派民主改革运动党在本月早些时候抵制宣誓就职典礼。在典礼上，穆加贝总统承诺为津巴布韦再任职 5 年，这意味着他会执政到 94 岁。而且，他计划在那之后寻求再选。穆加贝先生曾说过，他会任职到 100 岁。
He is the only leader that Zimbabwe has known since it officially gained independence from Britain in 1980. At first, he held the position of prime minister.
他是津巴布韦在 1980 年从英国独立以来经历过的唯一的最高领导人。一开始，他担任的是总理职务。
Tom Wheeler is a former South African diplomat. He says Robert Mugabe showed promise as a leader in the early 1980s. He rose to power at that time as a freedom fighter. He struggled to end white rule and secure independence for Zimbabwe. But the former diplomat says Mr. Mugabe suffers from pride – that he seems very pleased with himself. He says the president is like other African leaders who could not foresee the possibility of giving up power.
Tom Wheeler 是南非的一位前外交官。他说，罗伯特•穆加贝在 20 世纪 80 年代早期展现出有成为领导人的前途。在这段时间，他作为一名自由战士执掌权力。他为津巴布韦结束白人统治和安全独立而奋斗。但这位前外交官说，穆加贝先生过于骄傲了——他看起来对自己非常满意。他说，这位总统像其他非洲领导人一样，看不到他们放弃政权的可能性。
Mr. Wheeler says that in one way, Robert Mugabe is a bright and well educated man who did good things for Zimbabwe in the beginning. But he condemned other actions.
“But there were also some really bad things.”
Mr. Wheeler notes that after Mr. Mugabe came to power, he called on Zimbabweans to forget their racial divisions and work for their future.
In 1982, however, soldiers under his command killed an estimated 20,000 people in an area where many of his opponents lived. His government ordered the seizing of farms that belonged to whites in the late nineteen nineties and early 2000s. Western countries have taken steps against Mr. Mugabe and his aides for more than 10 years to punish what they say are human rights abuses.
然而在 1982 年，士兵在他的命令下，在很多他的反对者居住的地区杀害了大约 2万人。他的政府在 20 世纪末和 21 世纪初下令搜查属于白人的农场。10 多年来，西方国家采取措施反对穆加贝先生和他的助手，惩罚他们所说的人权践踏。
Faith Zaba has served as political editor and news editor for the Zimbabwe Independent newspaper. She compares Mr. Mugabe to the sun around which all of the country’s political leaders move.
Faith Zaba 曾在《津巴布韦独立报》担任政治编辑和新闻编辑。她把穆加贝比作被该国家所有政治领导人围绕着的太阳。
Ms. Zaba says the president has softened a little in his old age. She says he may even be ready to reach out to his opponents in the Movement for Democratic Change.
“In terms of the way he’s approaching things, he’s not as hard hitting as he was before 2009…That’s a different Mugabe we’re seeing.”
“说到他做事的方式，他不再像 2009 年之前那么强势了……我们现在看到的是一个不一样的穆加贝。”
But an opposition activist based in South Africa calls Robert Mugabe a fallen hero. The activist, Kumbirai Muchemwa, accuses him of putting politics above the well-being of average Zimbabweans. He says Mr. Mugabe should have a better plan for the economy. And he says the president does not care for his people.
但是，南非的一位反对派活动人士把罗伯特•穆加贝称作一位落寞的英雄。这位活动人士 Kumbirai Muchemwa 指控他将政治凌驾于普通老百姓的幸福之上。他说，穆加贝先生应该有更好的经济计划。他还说，这位总统不关心他的人民。
Too Many Children Are Overweight
If you asked the average American what he thinks about African children, he would probably say that most of them live in poverty and are very thin. That average American, and perhaps many other people in the world, would probably be surprised by a recent World Health Organization report that paints a very different picture. Karen Leggett tells us what the report said.
The World Health Organization says there has been a sharp increase in the number of children in developing countries who weigh too much. In African countries, the WHO says the number of overweight or obese children is two times as high as it was 20 years ago.
世界卫生组织称，发展中国家超重儿童的数量正急剧上升。WHO 指出，在非洲国家超重儿童的数量是其 20 年前的 2 倍。
Around the world, about 43-million children under the age of five were overweight in 2011. Doctors use height, weight and age to measure whether a person is underweight, normal, overweight or obese.
2011 年，全世界大约有 4300 万 5 岁以下的儿童超重或肥胖。医生用身高、体重和年龄来衡量一个人是否体重过轻、正常、超重或肥胖。
Overweight and obese children are more likely to become overweight and obese adults. The condition can lead to serious health problems like diabetes, heart disease and stroke.
Francesco Branca is the director of the WHO Department of Nutrition for Health and Development. He says people are eating manufactured, or processed, food more often. He says it often has a high sugar, fat and salt content.
Francesco Branca 是 WHO 营养健康和发展部门的主管。他说，人们饮食加工过的食品越来越多。他指出，它们经常含有较高的糖、脂肪和盐分。
The WHO also says people are gaining weight because of city lifestyles. They travel in cars or other vehicles more than on foot. They are less physically active in general.
The WHO says it is common to find poor nutrition and obesity in the same country, the same community and even in the same family. And experts say lowering obesity rates is especially complex in countries that also deal with high rates of infectious diseases.
The WHO has some basic solutions for individuals and countries. The organization says to lower your intake of fat, sugar, salt and processed food. It says eat more fruits and vegetables and increase physical activity.
The WHO says these actions are especially important for children.
And WHO experts say mothers should breastfeed their babies for at least the first six months of life, if possible.
WHO 专家表示，如果有可能的话，母亲至少要在婴儿 6 个月以前保证哺乳喂养。
WHO official Francesco Branca says governments should consider providing vitamins for children. He says educational campaigns about problems linked to obesity would also help. And he says government policies should deal with how food is marketed to children.
WHO 官员 Francesco Branca 说，政府应该考虑为儿童提供维生素。他说，与肥胖问题有关的教育活动也能起到作用。他还说，政府政策应该关照到向儿童推广食品的方式。
Mister Branca says food manufacturers must balance quality and taste with the dangers of sugar, fat and salt.
He also said reducing the number of overweight children will not be easy. He says the goal is difficult to meet even in wealthy countries.
The current goal of the WHO’s World Health Assembly is to prevent any increase in the percentage of overweight children during the next 12 years. I’m Karen Leggett.
WHO 世界卫生大会现在的目标是在接下来 12 年防止超重儿童的比例有任何增加。
And I’m Jim Tedder in Washington. Thank you for spending some time with us today. We will leave you with the wonderful voice of Carol Lawrence, who celebrates her 78thbirthday today. Many remember her for her performance in the Broadway musical “West Side Story” when she sang this classic American song by Leonard Bernstein and Stephen Sondheim. We’ll see you next time.
我们将以卡洛尔•劳伦斯的美妙声音作为结束，今天是她的 78 岁生日。很多人记住她是因为她在百老汇音乐剧《西区故事》中的表演，她在雷昂纳德•伯恩斯坦和斯蒂芬•桑德海姆身边演唱了这首经典美国歌曲。