Hello, again, and welcome. I’m Jim Tedder in Washington. On today’s program, we ask the experts. A wanted American says he wants to live in Russia, rather than face the courts in the United States. What will his life be like? How will he earn a living? What are his new Russian neighbors likely to think of him? That’s part one. Then we hear from some health experts about the dangers of toxic wastes in developing countries. If you suspect there are poisons near your home, what can you do?
You’ve got the questions, and we’ve got the answers about your world, as it is!
Many people know that former American intelligence specialist Edward Snowden is wanted in the United States on espionage charges. Mr. Snowden is accused of telling the world about secret programs operated by America’s National Security Agency.
Edward Snowden worked in Hawaii, where he was cleared to read highly secret government documents. He flew to Hong Kong before some of the details were published in newspapers.
Mr. Snowden arrived in Russia in late June. For more than a month, he was not permitted to leave an airport in Moscow. Then he gained permission to step on Russian soil. He was told he can remain in that country for a year. But the Russian government is restricting what the American can say.
斯诺登先生在 6 月下旬抵达俄罗斯。在 1 个多月的时间内，他未能获准离开莫斯科的一个机场。然后他获得了踏上俄罗斯国土的通行证。他被告知自己可以在该国家逗留 1 年。但俄罗斯政府限制了这位美国人的言论。
National Security expert David Barrett teaches at Villanova University in Pennsylvania. He says Edward Snowden will no longer be able to talk openly about America’s secrets.
国家安全专家 David Barrett 在宾夕法尼亚州维拉诺瓦大学教书。他说，爱德华•斯诺登将不能再公开谈论美国的机密。
“One of the things that (Russian Premier Vladimir) Putin said when he spoke of the possibility of Snowden’s staying there is that Snowden would have to be quiet. He would have to stop saying things and revealing things about U.S. intelligence.”
Mr. Barrett says Mr. Snowden will not be very happy if he is barred from speaking to reporters and groups about the National Security Agency.
Peter Savodnik is an expert on Americans seeking refuge in Russia. He also believes Mr. Snowden will not be happy there. Mr. Savodnik says Russian officials are able to create what he calls “a sort of gray unhappiness.”
Peter Savodnik 是一位有关美国在俄罗斯寻求避难者的专家。他也认为斯诺登在那里不会开心。Savodnik 说，俄罗斯政府能够制造他所说的“一种灰色的不开心”。
He notes what happened more than half a century ago to Lee Harvey Oswald. The former serviceman rejected life in America and moved to Russia for a short time, but then returned to the United States. In 1963, he shot to death President John F. Kennedy.
Mr. Savodnik also notes what he believes has been the unhappiness for people who rejected the United States to live in Russia. He says this includes all such defectors since World War Two. He predicts that Russian officials would want Edward Snowden to live far away from news media. And, Mr. Savodnik says they might send him to live in an area far from a major city. His job might be cleaning floors or working in a factory.
Savodnik 先生还提到了他所认为的拒绝美国到俄罗斯生活者的不开心之处。他说，这包括第二次世界大战后所有这些叛逃者。他预测，俄罗斯官方会希望爱德华•斯诺登住在离新闻媒体较远的地方。而且，Savodnik 先生说他们可能会送他住到远离大城市的地方。他的工作可能会是打扫地板或在工厂工作。
Matthew Rojansky directs the Kennan Institute at the Wilson Center, a research center in Washington. He says no one will be able to trust Mr. Snowden.
Matthew Rojansky 是华盛顿威尔逊中心凯南研究所的主任。他说，没有人能够信任斯诺登先生。
“Because it is understood: this is someone who would betray their own country and so that it’s hard to respect for most ordinary people including Russians…”
Mr. Rojansky says the Russian decision to let the American stay 12 months will harm its relations with the United States for a long time.
Savodnik 先生说，俄罗斯让这位美国人逗留 12 个月，这会在长期内伤害它与美国的关系。
“The Snowden issue is going to remain on those lists that senior American officials take into negotiations for years to come.” He says although it may not be at the top of the list, the issue will be there.
Observers say they are sure that Edward Snowden would have a better life in some place other than Russia. But for now, no one knows where that place would be.
Watch For Poison Dumps in Developing Countries
They are all over the world, and they can make you sick, or even kill you. They often are what’s left over from a manufacturing process. Scientists and health officials call them toxic wastes. Reports say these poisons can be found in large amounts, particularly in developing countries. Caty Weaver joins us now to tell us about the findings, and how we can deal with a dangerous situation.
Millions of people in developing countries live near toxic waste dumps. A new study looked at the dangers of living near these chemical waste sites.
An environmental organization in New York studied water and soil samples from 373 waste sites. These were in three countries: India, Pakistan and Indonesia. The researchers found that more than 8.6 million people were living near the sites in 2010 and were exposed to many chemicals. Richard Fuller was an author of the study.
纽约的一个环境机构研究了 373 个垃圾场的水样和土样。它们来自 3 个国家：印度、巴基斯坦和印度尼西亚。研究人员发现，在 2010 年有超过 860 万人居住在这些场地附近，与多种化学物质接触。Richard Fuller 是该研究的一位作者。
“Lead, chromium, mercury, phosphates, different kinds of organic chemicals, pesticides and the like -- they’re all over the world, unfortunately.”
Mr. Fuller heads the Blacksmith Institute, which paid for the study. The institute works to solve pollution problems in low- and moderate-income countries. The study says people living near the dumps lost more than 828,000 years of healthy life from toxic waste exposure. The researchers based this finding on estimates of illness, disability and early death.
Fuller 先生是布莱克史密斯研究所的主管，该研究所为这项研究提供了资金。该研究所的工作是解决中低收入国家的污染问题。该报告称，居住在这些垃圾场附近的人因接触毒性废料而损失了共计 82.8 万年的健康寿命。研究人员基于这些成果预估疾病、残疾和提前死亡。
By comparison, they say malaria caused less illness and early death in the same three countries. Air pollution, they say, caused a little more.
The study found that lead created the highest pollution levels. This metal, if absorbed into the blood, can harm the brain development of unborn babies and lower the intelligence of children. Two-thirds of those exposed to lead near waste dumps in Pakistan, India and Indonesia were children and women of child-bearing age.
该研究发现，铅带来的污染级别最高。这种金属如果被吸入血液，会伤害胎儿的大脑发育、降低儿童智力。在巴基斯坦、印度和印度尼西亚的这些垃圾场附近，与铅接触的人有 2/3 是儿童和育龄妇女。
Kevin Chatham-Stephens was the lead author of the study. He is a pediatric environmental health expert at the Mount Sinai School of Medicine in New York. He says people living near toxic waste sites can take simple steps to reduce their risk.
Kevin Chatham-Stephens 是这项研究的主要作者。他是纽约西奈山医学院的一位儿科环境卫生专家。他说，居住在有毒废物垃圾场附近的人可以通过一些简单的措施来降低风险。
“Even though it may not sound like a lot, washing your hands is one of the most-effective ways that we can decrease our exposure to chemical pollutants -- just because we know that oftentimes chemicals such as lead can end up in the dust and if we have that dust on our hands, and then we eat our foods and we wipe our mouths or something like that, then that chemical can then enter into our body.”
The Blacksmith Institute is studying toxic waste sites in 70 other developing countries. It hopes to help organize clean-up efforts. Richard Fuller says cleaning up is a slow process, but the countries he is working with have been eager to cooperate.
布莱克史密斯研究所还在其他 70 个发展中国家研究有毒废物垃圾场。它希望帮助组织清理行动。Richard Fuller 说，清理是很缓慢的过程，但这些他进行工作的国家是渴望合作的。
“Everyone here has the right heart and are keen to do the best that they can. So, we think it’s possible. It’s just going to take a lot of work.”
The study is in the journal Environmental Health Perspectives. I’m Caty Weaver.
And I’m Jim Tedder in Washington. Thanks for being with us today. Remember, there are more Learning English programs straight ahead, and world news at the beginning of the hour on VOA.
But before we move on, a look back to September 12, 1966. Millions of American teenagers, including, well, I won’t say who, were gathered around our TV sets waiting for the very first show featuring Micky Dolenz, Davy Jones, Mike Nesmith, and Peter Tork. It was a mix of music and comedy as America’s answer to the Beatles was broadcast. Hey! Who are you guys?
在我们继续之前，回顾一下 1966 年的 9 月 12 日。数百万美国青少年守候在电视机旁等待收看米奇•多伦兹、戴维•琼斯、迈克•奈史密斯和皮特•多克主演的最早的一部电视剧。这是美国回应披头士而播出的音乐与喜剧相结合的节目。