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[翻译]新闻传真 - 猪肉、牛奶、鸡蛋需求日益增长

来源:慢速英语   时间:2013-09-21 10:59:32

Hello there, and welcome to As It Is -- VOA’s daily show for people learning American English!

I’m Christopher Cruise in Washington.

Today on our program, we hear about a group that works to reconnect people to the land and to honor local farmers.

在今天的节目里,我们来了解一个组织,它致力于重新将人们和土地联系起来,并向当地的农户致意。

“The food has been absolutely wonderful. I totally appreciate hard work, because now that you see everything they have to do to take care of the animals and make sure they're well cared for.”

“这些食物实在是太棒了。我非常感谢他们的辛勤劳动,因为现在你可以看到他们为了照顾好这些牲畜,以及为了确保它们受到好的照料而付出的一切。”

But first, we explore how the growing worldwide demand for food is changing the way the food we eat is being produced.

不过首先,我们来探究一下全球范围内食物需求的增长,看它如何改变我们生产食物的方式。

Global Meat Demand Spurs Transformation, Backlash

全球肉食需求激发变革和对冲

Demand for meat, milk and eggs is growing around the world. To meet that demand, the way these products are produced is changing. The change is from small farms to large, industrial operations. This has already happened in the United States. But not everyone is happy with the change. As a result, there is also a growing demand for products grown locally on small farms.

全世界对肉、奶、蛋的需求正在增长。为了满足这个需求,这些产品的生产方式正在改变。这种改变小到小型农场,大到大型工业操作。这在美国已经发生了。但不是所有人都喜欢这种变化。因此,对于小型农户所生产的产品,需求也在增长。

Karen Leggett reports.

In Clinton, North Carolina, some old buildings are all that remain from the days when James Lamb raised hogs next to his home. He saw that small farmers were having trouble competing with companies that own large farms.

在北加州的克林顿,有几座旧建筑是 James Lamb 在他家附近养猪时留下的。他发现小农户与拥有大农场的公司没办法竞争。

“They had better consistency, better pork quality, better genetics. So after college, in ’98, I decided to try to modernize.”

“他们有更好的协调,更好的猪肉质量,更好的基因。因此大学毕业后,1998 年,我决定尝试现代化。”

He stopped raising hogs in small buildings and built two industrial-sized hog barns. Each of them holds 1,500 hogs.

他放弃在小型建筑内养猪,修建了两个有工厂规模的猪圈,每个容纳 1500 头猪。

Nearly all pigs are raised this way in the United States now. The government says the efficiency of large-scale production in a controlled environment has helped reduce the price of a pork chop by nearly 20 percent since 1998.

现在美国几乎所有的猪都这样饲养。政府称,1998 年以来,大规模生产带来的效率在有控制的环境下帮助猪排价格降低了将近 20%。

These efficient and intensive production methods are being used around the world. Many experts say that is a good thing as the demand for meat grows. But livestock expert Carolyn Opio points out that the land, water and feed required to produce it are limited.

这些有效和集中的生产方式正被全世界采用。很多专家指出,这对于肉类需求增长是好事。但牲畜专家 Carolyn Opio 指出,饲养所需的土地、水和饲料是有限的。

“If we are to produce within the constraints that we are facing today, efficiency, I think, is very, is key.”

“如果我们要在如今面临的有限条件下进行生产,我认为效率是非常关键的。”

Ms. Opio is with the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization.

Opio 先生在联合国粮食和农业组织工作。

But the results of efficiency are not always necessarily good. The waste from thousands of confined animals can pollute waterways and produce greenhouse gases. And some health experts are concerned about the antibiotics and other chemicals being put in the animals’ feed. Others criticize the conditions in which the animals are kept.

但效率带来的结果却并不总是好的。数千头被圈养的牲畜所产生的废弃物会污染水渠,产生温室气体。健康专家还担心加入牲畜饲料中的抗生素和其它化学物质。其他人还批评这些牲畜的圈养环境。

So today, a growing number of people are like Kevin Summers in Amissville, Virginia, and returning to small-scale farming.

因此,现在越来越多的人重新回到小规模饲养,比如弗吉尼亚州 Amissville 市的 Kevin Summers。

“In order to feed the world, I think this is a better way. It’s a, you know, it’s a cleaner way. It’s a more humane way.”

“为了养活全世界的人,我觉得这是个更好的方式。要知道,这是更清洁的方式,更人道的方式。”

More Americans today say they want to know where their food comes from. Some might like the way Kevin Summers raises his hogs.

现在,更多的美国人表示他们想要知道自己的食物是哪里来的。一些人可能会喜欢 Kevin Summers 的养猪方式。

“I can see the entire process unfold before my eyes and know that they had a good life and were healthy and happy.”

“我可以看到整个过程呈现在我眼前,知道它们生活得很好,是健康快乐的。”

The hogs eat damaged apples and old pumpkins. This reduces food waste. But this kind of farming also means higher prices. Even so, Kevin Summers says he believes it would still be possible to meet global demand this way.

猪吃腐烂的苹果和老南瓜,这减少了食物的浪费,但这种饲养也意味着高价格。即便如此,Kevin Summers 说他仍然相信这种方式是有可能满足全球需求的。

“And it would just involve people making the choice to buy this kind of food and say that, ‘I care about something other than just the cost.’”

“这只会让人们在决定买这种食物时说,‘我更关心价格之外的一些东西’”。

Serving Farm-Fresh Meals -- At the Farm

农场直接提供膳食——来到农场

“Farm to table” is the name of a movement that encourages people to eat locally grown food. The farm-to-table idea has become more popular in recent years. But there is also a group that brings “table to farm.” This traveling group is called Outstanding in the Field. It says its mission is to reconnect people to the land and to honor local farmers by creating a sort of restaurant without walls.

“农场到餐桌”是一项运动的名字,它鼓励人们吃当地生产的食物。“农场到餐桌”的理念在近些年越来越流行。但还有一个组织主张“餐桌到农场”。这个旅行组织叫做“野餐会”,它称自己的任务是重新将人们和土地联系起来,并通过创建一种没有围墙的餐厅,向当地的农户致意。

Karen Leggett has more on the group, and its founder, Jim Denevan.

Karen Leggett 带来更多关于这个组织及其创始人 Jim Denevan 的报道。

“Just even those out with the new table.”

Jim Denevan got the idea for this kind of “culinary adventure,” as he calls it, ten years ago. He recently prepared tables for more than a hundred people at Briars Farmstead in Virginia. He and his eight-member crew arrived the night before. Chefs from a local restaurant prepared the dinner.

Jim Denevan 在 10 年前萌生了这种“饮食之旅”的想法——他是这么称它的。最近,他在弗吉尼亚 Briars 农场为 100 多人准备餐桌。他和 8 名员工在前一天晚上到达,一家当地餐馆的厨师准备了晚餐。

“The mission of Outstanding in the Field is to bring people closer to where food comes from and hear the stories directly from the farmer, walk around and get to know places like this, which are important, I think.”

“‘野餐会’的任务是带领人们走近生产食物的地方,听农户直接讲述他们的故事,四处走走,了解像这样的地方,我觉得这很重要。”

​Jim Denevan’s brother is a farmer and he himself is a former chef. He thought the idea of a meal served right at the farm made sense, though not everyone agreed.

Jim Denevan 的哥哥是一位农民,他自己以前是一名厨师。他认为,这个紧靠农场提供膳食的想法是行得通的,尽管不是所有人都同意。

“But I wanted to make the idea work, so I decided to cross the country -- I went all the way across the United States and set the table in farms and ranches and on beaches, and all the places where food comes from.”

“但我想要实现这个想法,因此我决定走遍这个国家——我走遍了美国,在农场、牧场、海滩,以及所有出产食物的地方准备餐桌。”

Guests bring their own plates to the meal. When they arrive, the farmer shows them around.

客人们带自己的餐盘来用餐。他们来了之后,农民会带他们四处看看。

“These are free-range chickens. We want them to eat as much pasture as possible because that’s the magic.”

“这些是自由放养的鸡。我们希望它们尽可能多地吃牧草,因为这是有魔力的。”

Matt Szechenyi and his family operate Briars Farmstead.

Matt Szechenyi 和家人运营 Briars 农场。

“This type of event connects us with a lot of enthusiastic people, people that will -- we can form relationships with in the future. And this type of small farm business thrives on relationships.”

“这种活动将我们与很多热情的人们联系了起来,这些人将来会和我们建立关系。这种小型农场生意靠关系才能兴旺。”

The tour of the farm ends at the dinner table. The meats in this five-course meal come from Matt Szechenyi’s farm. The vegetables and other ingredients come from nearby farms. Guests and local farmers sit together.

这次农场之旅在餐桌上结束。这顿 5 道菜的晚餐所用的肉食来自 Matt Szechenyi 的农场,蔬菜和其他原材料来自附近的农场。客人和当地的农民坐在一起。

Annoica Ingram came with a friend.

Annoica Ingram 是和一位朋友来的。

“The food has been absolutely wonderful. I totally appreciate hard work, because now that you see everything they have to do to take care of the animals and make sure they're well-cared-for.”

“这些食物实在是太棒了。我非常感谢他们的辛勤劳动,因为现在你可以看到他们为了照顾好这些牲畜,以及为了确保它们受到好的照料而付出的一切。”

We hope you enjoyed the program.

It was written from reports by Steve Baragona and June Soh.

I’m Christopher Cruise, and that’s “As It Is” for this Monday, September 16thfrom The Voice of America.