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[翻译]新闻传真 - 年轻尼日利亚人对抗 Boko Haram

来源:慢速英语   时间:2013-09-23 10:13:15

Hello, and welcome back for another edition of As It Is.  I’m Jim Tedder in Washington.  Today, we travel to Nigeria to learn about some young people who want to punish members of a famous militant group.  But some wonder if this civilian organization will someday become yet another problem for the Nigerian government.

今天,我们来到尼日利亚去了解一些想要惩罚某著名军事组织成员的年轻人。但是,一些人怀疑这个民间组织将来会成为尼日利亚政府的另一个问题。

Then we’ll hear from some law experts who think that the process of becoming a lawyer takes too long, and costs too much.  Is it possible to become a good lawyer without going to law school for 3 years?  Stay with us for As It Is, a way to learn English while hearing about your world!

接下来我们将听到一些法律专家,他们认为成为律师的过程耗时太长,花费太大。有没有可能不在法学院花 3 年时间就可以成为一名好的律师?

Nigeria’s northeastern Borno state is home to the Islamist militant group, Boko Haram.  Hundreds of young men there have formed a civilian group to resist Boko Haram. These civilians work actively with the military to find Boko Haram militants.  The civilians use methods outside the law to punish what they consider wrongdoing.  But now their members have become targets.

尼日利亚东北部的博尔诺州是伊斯兰军事组织 Boko Haram 的起源地。那里的数百名年轻人组建了一个平民组织来对抗Boko Haram。这些平民积极配合军方寻找 Boko Haram 激进分子。这些平民采用法律之外的手段来惩罚他们所认为的不法行径。但是,现在他们的成员却成为了目标。

At least 55 members of a civilian defense group in Borno State have been killed by people who appear to be Boko Haram militants.  The killings took place in a series of attacks, beginning in August.

博尔诺州一个平民防卫组织至少有 55 人被看起来像 Boko Haram 激进分子的人杀害。这些死亡事件发生在始于 8 月份的一系列袭击中。

The civilian policing group is called the Civilian JTF, the Civilian Task Force.  It is similar to the Nigerian military’s JTF, the Joint Task Force.  The government military force has tried to control the Islamist rebellion in northern Nigeria that has continued since 2009.

这个平民警务组织叫做平民特遣部队(Civilian JTF)。它和尼日利亚军方的联合特遣部队类似,这个政府军队试着控制 2009 年以来一直存在于尼日利亚北部的伊斯兰教徒的叛乱。

Baba Garba Chajo helped form the Civilian JTF this June.  He says the group’s job is to help the military.  And he says that includes searching for and arresting militants.

Baba Garba Chajo 在今年 6 月协助建立了平民特遣部队。他说,该组织的工作是帮助军方,包括搜寻和逮捕激进分子。

“In the past we were at the receiving end of the Boko Haram.  But now we are the ones sending them on the run.  We no longer fear Boko Haram because we have conquered our fears.  And we have all sworn by the holy Quran to justly pursue our duties without recourse to worldly gains.”

“过去我们是 Boko Haram 的目标,但现在是我们追着他们跑。我们不再怕 Boko Haram,因为我们战胜了我们的恐惧。而且我们都在神圣的可兰经前发誓,要正当地实现我们的职责,不考虑世俗的回报。”

But there have been problems.   Mr. Chajo said they had to get soldiers to shoot several members of their group.  He said that in one village, Civilian JTF members were robbing and attacking people.  He described their actions as “worse than Boko Haram.”

但是问题一直都存在。Chajo 先生说,他不得不让士兵向他们组织的一些成员射击。他说,在一个村落,平民特遣部队的成员抢劫并袭击百姓。他描述这些行为“比 Boko Haram 还要恶劣”。

Baba Garba Chajo once worked as a mechanic.  But he now spends his time looking for members of Boko Haram as he drives the streets of Maiduguri in Borno State.  Many local people are tired of the rebellion.  They praise the efforts of the Civilian JTF.

Baba Garba Chajo 曾是一名机械师。但现在,他开着车在博尔诺州迈杜古里市的大街上,把时间都花在搜寻 Boko Haram 成员上面。很多当地人已厌倦叛乱。他们对平民特遣部队的行动表示称赞。

The military supports the Civilian JTF and provides them with protection.  The idea is that local people know the communities and are better able to find militants. But the military has not given any guns to Civilian JTF members.

军方支持平民特遣部队并为他们提供保护,其想法是,当地人了解这些社区并能更好地找到激进分子。但是军方没有给平民特遣部队任何枪支。

Military spokesman Lieutenant Colonel Sagir Musa says the Civilian JTF has been important to a current government offensive.  He says the three-month-long offensive is helping control Boko Haram’s continuing attacks against civilians.

军方发言人陆军中校 Sagir Musa 说,平民特遣部队对当前的政府攻势来说很重要。他说,长达 3 个月的攻势控制了 Boko Haram 对平民持续不断的袭击。

Colonel Musa described the militants as, in his words, not happy.  He said they are no longer able to move freely.  But others are not so sure.  The military has cut off cellphone communication in much of the northeast and blocked the battle areas.  Progress is hard to measure.

用 Musa 中校的话说,激进分子并不高兴。他说,他们不能再自由移动了。但其他人并不这么确定。军方切断了东北大部分地区的手机通讯,封锁了战争区域。很难衡量进展如何。

And there are concerns that supporting the civilian group will lead to more big problems.  Some experts say the formation of a civilian fighting group in Nigeria marks a government surrender of power.

而且还有一些担心是,支持平民组织会导致更多的大问题。一些专家称,尼日利亚平民作战组织的形成标志着政府放弃了权力。

Shehu Sani heads the Civil Rights Congress of Nigeria.  He says the military is failing in its responsibility to these untrained and unarmed young people.  And Mr. Sani says members of the Civilian JTF violate human rights.  He accuses them of attacking and arresting people suspected of belonging to the Boko Haram group.

Shehu Sani 领导尼日利亚的民权大会。他说,军方忽略了对这些未经训练、手无寸铁的年轻人的责任。Sani 先生还说,平民特遣部队的成员侵犯了人权。他谴责他们袭击并逮捕涉嫌隶属于 Boko Haram 组织的人。

The human rights activist says, “These people will someday grow to be another monster that the Nigerian state has to deal with.”

这位人权活动者说:“这些人将来会发展为尼日利亚必须应对的另一个猛兽。”

Does Law School Take Too Long and Cost Too Much?

法学院耗时太长、花费太大?

Medical doctors and lawyers have usually held a respected place in American society.  But the educational costs necessary to join the professions can be way too high for many young people.  Faith Lapidus joins us now with information that may save students both time and money.

医生和律师在美国社会通常有受人尊重的地位。但是进入这些行业的教育开销对于很多轻人来说还是太高了。 Faith Lapidus 现在将加入我们,给我们带来为学生既省钱又省时的消息。

People who want to become lawyers traditionally attend three years of law school. Like medical students, many law students are deeply in debt by the time they finish their juris doctor, or JD, degree. Those who take out loans borrow an average of around $125,000 to attend a private school. The average for public law schools is about $75,000.

想要成为律师的人根据传统要读 3 年的法学院。像医科生一样,很多法学院的学生在读完法学博士(JD)学位的同时也身陷债务之苦。这些接受贷款的学生平均要借大约 12.5 万美元才能到私立学院上学,公立法学院的平均数额是 7.5 万美元。

Almost all graduates must pass a bar examination to get a license to practice law. This is a professional test administered by states.

几乎所有的毕业生都必须通过一个律师资格考试来获得成为律师的执照。这是国家级的专业测试。

New York University Law School Professor Samuel Erstreicher has written a paper about bar exam requirements. It appeared in the school’s Journal of Legislation and Public Policy. Professor Erstreicher suggests that more students should be allowed to take the bar exam after two years of law school. He notes that this was more common in the past. Supreme Court Justice Benjamin Cardozo and President Franklin Roosevelt both took the bar exam after two years.

纽约大学法学院教授 Samuel Erstreicher 撰写了一篇有关律师资格考试的文章,它发表在该学校的《立法与公共政策》期刊上。Erstreicher 教授建议,应该允许更多的学生在 2 年的法学院学习后参加律师资格考试。他指出,这在过去更为常见。美国最高法院大法官本杰明•卡多佐和总统富兰克林•罗斯福就是在 2 年后就参加了律师资格考试。

Professor Erstreicher also suggests a more professional, instead of a more academic, program of study. Learning more about professional skills, he says, would better prepare a lawyer to serve the needs of average Americans.

Erstreicher 教授还建议更为专业,而不是更为学术的学习课程。他说,学习更多的专业技能可以让律师更好地准备为普通美国人的需求服务。

Some schools offer a two-year program in addition to three-year traditional courses of study. Southwestern Law School in Los Angeles established a program called SCALE in 1974. It says this is the oldest two-year JD program in the country.

一些学校在传统 3 年制的学习课程以外提供 2 年制课程。洛杉矶西南法学院在 1974 年建立了 SCALE 课程。它称这是该国家最古老的 2 年制法学博士课程。

Northwestern University School of Law in Chicago became the country’s first top law school to add an accelerated program. That was in 2009. Northwestern has the same requirements for accelerated students as for three-year students. They must learn the same material and pay the same price as students in the traditional program. Why, then, would someone want to do that? We asked Northwestern’s law school dean, Daniel Rodriguez.

芝加哥的西北大学法学院成为了该国家第一个增加短期课程的顶级法学院。这是在 2009 年。西北大学对这些短期课程的学生的要求和 3 年制学生一样。他们必须和传统课程的学生一样,学习同样的内容,支付同样的价格。那么,为什么还有人愿意这么做呢?我们来咨询西北大学法学院的院长 Daniel Rodriguez。

“For some of them it’s because they have a very clear sense of what they want to do when they get out of law school. Maybe they have a job lined up. Or, more likely, they have a strong sense of what their professional career would be. And they may be more urgent – a little bit of a hurry about it.”

“对于他们中的一些人来说,这是因为他们清楚地知道自己从法学院毕业后要做什么。也许他们有职业目标了。或者,更有可能的是,他们清楚地知道他们的职业生涯会是什么样。而他们可能就会更迫切——对此会有一点着急。”

Some lawyers argue against two-year programs. They question whether many law firms would want to hire lawyers without that third year of law school.  I’m Faith Lapidus.

一些律师反对 2 年制课程。他们质疑是否会有很多法律事务所愿意雇佣这些没有经历法学院第 3 年的律师。

And I’m Jim Tedder in Washington.  Thank you for spending some time with us on this Thursday, the 19thof September.  More Learning English programs are straight ahead, and there is world news at the beginning of the hour.