Hello, again, and welcome. I’m Jim Tedder in Washington. Today we are watching for them. And they most certainly are coming. People sometimes call them monsters. But they are not from a horror movie, or from outer space. They are huge storms that form over the Atlantic Ocean this time of year. We will have the latest information about the scientists who will be studying them.
And then, “I scream, you scream, we all scream for ice cream!” We will visit some ice cream makers to hear how they do it, and what unusual flavors they have discovered.
It’s time for more Learning English with As It Is on VOA.
The height of the Atlantic Ocean hurricane season has arrived. More hurricanes are reported at this time of year than during any other period.
The American space agency, NASA, recently announced plans to investigate the storms that form over that Atlantic. So today, we take you to the agency’s Goddard Space Flight Center near Washington. To learn about a campaign called the Hurricane and Severe Storm Sentinel mission -- HS3 for short.
NASA 最近公布了对大西洋上空所形成风暴的研究计划。因此，今天我们带大家来到华盛顿附近的美国宇航局戈达德太空飞行中心，来了解一项被称作“飓风和强风暴哨兵”（简称 HS3）的任务。
Tropical storms and hurricanes can mean a mixture of high winds, huge waves, flooding and destruction. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration says this Atlantic hurricane season probably will be more active than usual. And the memories of Hurricane Sandy are still strong. Last year, that storm killed many people in the United States, Canada and the Caribbean Sea.
NASA is studying storms by taking to the skies above the Atlantic Ocean – in fact, above the storms themselves. Two pilotless Global Hawk aircraft will collect measurements so scientists can learn how hurricanes come into existence.
Scott Braun is a research scientist, a meteorologist, at NASA. He describes the goals of HS3.
Scott Braun 是 NASA 的一位研究科学家和气象学家。他描述了 HS3 的目标。
“What we’re really after, scientifically, is to better understand the relative roles of the environment and those inner-core processes in the formation and intensification of hurricanes in the Atlantic.”
Global Hawks can reach a height of almost 20 kilometers. That is about two times as high as a passenger airplane can fly. Special instruments let scientists gather details about storms from high above. The instruments include a device with a long name -- the High Altitude Imaging Wind and Rain Profiler.
“全球鹰”可以到达将近 20 公里的高空，这是客机所能飞到的高度的两倍。特殊仪器可以让科学家从高处收集风暴的细节。这些仪器中有一个名字很长的设备——高纬度成像风雨分析器。
The Global Hawks will study the environment near the storms to see how surrounding conditions affect intensity. The airplanes also will collect information about the storms themselves. One plane will deploy dropsounds. These instruments measure temperature, humidity, pressure, wind speed and wind direction from above the storm down to the surface.
“全球鹰”将研究风暴附近的环境，了解周围环境如何影响强度。这些飞机还会收集风暴自身信息。一架飞机将部署 dropsounds 设备。这些设备能从风暴表面以上测量气温、湿度、压力、风速和风向。
NASA says the Global Hawks are loaded with state-of-the-art equipment. Scott Braun notes that there are good points about using aircraft without pilots in this research.
NASA 称，全球鹰”“装载了最先进的设备。Scott Braun 指出，在这项研究中使用无人驾驶飞机有很多好处。
“With the Global Hawks, we can fly for up to about 28 hours, and because all the crew and the scientists are on the ground rather than on the plane, we can swap out (exchange) shifts. And that just means that you can go much farther or stay out over a storm much longer than you can with a manned aircraft.”
“通过全球鹰，我们可以飞行长达 28 小时左右，而由于所有的机组人员和科学家都在地面上，而不是在飞机里，我们就可以实行换班。这恰恰意味着我们可以比人工操作的飞机飞得更远，或在风暴上空停留得更久。”
Researchers will study the information in depth after the project ends. But Mr. Braun says they also plan to do a quick examination and share that information.
研究人员将在该项目结束后深入研究这些信息。但 Braun 先生说，他们还计划对这些信息进行快速检查和共享。
The HS3 mission also is investigating something else that researchers have yet to understand. Mr. Braun says in addition to wind speed and wind direction, the researchers want to know more about temperature in the environment. He says that is especially true of something they call the Saharan Air Layer. It is a very hot, dry, dusty air mass that comes from Africa. Scientists are debating whether Sarahan dust provides material for tropical storms – or even suppresses the development of storms.
HS3 任务还在研究其他未被研究人员理解的东西。Braun 先生说，除了风速和风向，研究人员想要了解更多有关环境温度的信息。他说，尤其是一种被称作“撒哈拉空气层”的东西。这是一种来自非洲的非常热的、干燥的、充满灰尘的大气物质。科学家正在争论撒哈拉灰尘是否为热带风暴提供了物质材料——或者甚至是抑制风暴的发展。
Doesn’t Everyone Love Ice Cream?
Ice cream is a frozen treat usually eaten after a meal. It can be found around the world. In Los Angeles, California, some business owners are preparing ice cream that is similar to the desserts of other countries. Onka Dekker spoons out the sweet story for us.
At the Ice Cream Lab in Beverly hills, the frozen dessert is made to order. People watch as the ice cream makers pour a liquid ice cream base into a bowl. The an odorless smoke appears from the mixture. Tommy Ngan and his business partner Joseph Lifschutz make ice cream with liquid nitrogen. Mr. Lifschutz explains.
在比佛利山庄的冰淇淋实验室，这种冷饮是定制的。人们看着冰淇淋制作者将液态的冰淇淋倒入一个碗里。一种无味的气体出现在了混合物中。Tommy Ngan 和他的商业伙伴 Joseph Lifschutz 采用液态氮制作冰淇淋。Lifschutz 先生进行了解释。
“It’s used as an instant freezer. It kind of touches everything in the bowl and evaporates, which is why you see the whole smoke show.”
Mr. Ngan is from Hong Kong, where he learned this method of making the dessert.
At Blockheads Shavery Company, people do not see smoke. But they do hear the sound of ice cream being made. A block of ice is placed on a machine and then shaved. Supervisor Brian Liang says there are different kinds, or flavors, that include green tea and black sesame.
在 Blockheads Shavery 公司，人们不用看到烟雾，而是在制作冰淇淋的时候可以听到响声。一个冰块被放在机器上切割。检查员 Brian Liang 说，有不同的种类，或口味，包括绿茶味和黑芝麻味。
“We call is snow cream. It’s a cross between shaved ice, so it has the light airy texture, and the creamy taste of ice cream. The dessert is actually pretty popular in Taiwan. Basically the owners kind of grew up eating it.”
People looking for ice cream with flavors from the Middle East can find it at Mashti Malone’s Ice Cream Shop. Iranian American Mashti Shirvani has been making Persian-style ice cream at his store for 34 years.
想吃中东口味冰淇淋的人可以在 Mashti Malone 冰淇淋店找到它。伊朗裔美国人 Mashti Shirvani 已经在他的店里制作了 34 年的波斯风格冰淇淋。
“I do the old fashioned way when I make any food. I don’t measure it. Just my eyes and my hand.”
His ice cream creations include ingredients such as ginger, saffron, lavender, orange blossom, and rose water. While many of the flavors are Persian, Mr. Shirvani says his ice cream is not Persian. He explains that in Iran they make ice milk. But he uses cream, which has a higher level of fat.
他的冰淇淋制品所包含的配料有姜、藏红花、薰衣草、香橙花和玫瑰水。虽然很多口味是波斯风格的， Shirvani 先生说他但的冰淇淋并不是波斯风格的。他解释道，在伊朗他们制作冻牛乳。但他用的是奶油，脂肪含量更高。
Even with the differences in what goes into making ice cream, Mr. Shirvani’s brother, Mehdi, says ice cream appeals to everyone.
即便制作冰淇淋的东西不同，Shirvani 先生的弟弟 Mehdi 说，冰淇淋对所有人都是有吸引力的。
“Ice cream is the most affordable antidepressant. I mean, come on, you’re not happy, you eat ice cream …you become happy. If you’re happy, you want to be more happy …you eat ice cream.”
No matter how many flavors of ice cream exist in the world, it seems that people will always create some new version of this popular dessert. I’m Onka Dekker.
I’m Jim Tedder in Washington. There are more Learning English programs straight ahead, and world news at the beginning of the hour on VOA.