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[翻译]新闻传真 - 对农业有益,对公共卫生有害

来源:慢速英语   时间:2013-10-05 11:41:35

Hello, and welcome to As It Is -- VOA’s daily show for people learning everyday American English.

I’m Christopher Cruise in Washington.

Today we have two reports on the disease malaria. We heard about a study that found a link between malaria and irrigation water.

今天我们有两篇关于疟疾的报告。我们来了解一项研究,它发现了疟疾和灌溉水之间的联系。

“What happens is that then when you irrigate, there is more, in a sense, more breeding habitats for the mosquito.”

“这里出现的情况是,当你灌溉的时候,在某种意义上,蚊子会有更多的繁殖栖息地。”

We explain why what is good for crops might be increasing the risk of malaria in some very dry areas.

我们解释了为什么对农作物有益的东西却可能会增加一些干旱地区的疟疾风险。

Today, we also learn why many pregnant women are not being protected from the disease…

今天,我们还将了解为什么很多孕妇无法避免这种疾病。

“…because they are very powerful interventions that could go a long way to reducing the burden of malaria and improving the outcomes, both in pregnant women and, and their infants.”

“……因为它们是很强的干预措施,在减少疟疾负担和改善效果方面可能会大有帮助,不仅对孕妇,还有她们的婴儿。”

That story is next. But first, we tell how irrigation water may be partly to blame for a rise in malaria infections…

这篇报道随后播出。而首先,我们讲述灌溉水为何会在一定程度上引起疟疾感染率的增加。

Irrigation in Dry Areas Can Increase Malaria Risk

干旱地区的灌溉会增加疟疾风险

A new study describes how irrigation water can lead to an increase in malaria cases that could last for 10 years or more. Malaria is spread by mosquitoes. The insects like to reproduce in standing water. So when a dry area is irrigated, the disease can appear and spread.

一项新的研究描述了灌溉水如何引起疟疾病例的增加,它们会持续 10 年或更长的时间。疟疾通过蚊子传播。这种昆虫喜欢在积水中繁殖。因此,当灌溉一片干旱的区域时,这种疾病就会出现并传播。

​Mercedes Pascual is a scientist at the University of Michigan. She and her team studied areas in northern India where irrigation systems were built over a number of years. They compared how malaria progressed with the spread of irrigation.

Mercedes Pascual 是密歇根大学的一位科学家。她和她的团队研究了印度北部的一些地区,那里的灌溉系统已经建设了很多年。他们比较了疟疾如何随着灌溉的分布而发展。

“What happens is that then when you irrigate, there is more, in a sense, more breeding habitats for the mosquito.”

这里出现的情况是,当你灌溉时,在某种意义上,蚊子会有更多的繁殖栖息地。

She and the other scientists found that after farmers began irrigating their crops, the risk of malaria rose sharply. At first her team thought maybe the number of cases rose because there was little effort to control the mosquitoes that spread the disease. But they were wrong.

她和其他科学家发现,在农民开始灌溉他们的农作物之后,疟疾的风险急剧上升。起初她的团队认为病例数量的上升可能是因为很少有措施来控制传播疟疾的蚊子。但他们错了。

“In fact, we saw the opposite, that this transition stage was characterized not just by heightened malaria risk, but also by more intervention to control the mosquito vector.”

“实际上,我们看到的相反,这个转变阶段不仅仅有疟疾风险增加的特点,还有更多控制蚊虫的干预手段。”

Even after the mosquito control efforts were in place, the researchers found high rates of malaria continued for 10 years or longer.

即使进行了适当的蚊虫控制,研究人员还是发现高疟疾率持续了 10 年或更长时间。

Mercedes Pascual suggests that the irrigation project supervisors need to work more on reducing places where mosquitoes might reproduce. She also says health officials may need to try other methods of malaria prevention that would work for long periods of time.

Mercedes Pascual 建议,灌溉工程的监管者需要努力减少蚊子可能繁殖的地方。她还说,卫生官员可能需要尝试其他能够起效更长时间的疟疾预防方法。

A report on the study was published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America.

这项研究的一篇报告发表在《美国国家科学院论文集》上。

Pregnant Women Not Finding Ways to Prevent Malaria

孕妇无法预防疟疾

Malaria kills about 200,000 newborn babies and 10,000 new mothers every year. Most of these deaths are in Africa. Malaria can also cause mothers to lose their babies before they are born, or cause a baby to be born early.

疟疾每年引起 20 万新生儿和 1 万名新妈妈死亡。这些死亡病例大多数发生在非洲。疟疾还会引起母亲在孩子出生前失去他们,或引起婴儿早产。

There are low-cost ways to prevent malaria infections. But a new study finds that many pregnant women do not receive these interventions.

有一些成本较低的预防疟疾感染的方法。但是一项新的研究发现,很多孕妇无法接受这样的干预。

Jim Tedder reports.

For the past 20 years, the World Health Organization has advised pregnant women in areas with high rates of malaria to sleep under bed nets treated with insecticide. The WHO also advises them to get what is known as intermittent preventive treatment, or IPT. This treatment involves taking a low-cost anti-malaria drug at certain times in their pregnancy in an effort to prevent the disease. The WHO recommends that pregnant women receive the medicine, usually around four times, during visits to a clinic.

在过去 20 年,世界卫生组织建议高疟疾发病率地区的孕妇在经过杀虫剂处理的蚊帐中睡觉。WHO 还建议她们进行一种间断性预防治疗(IPT)。这种治疗包括在她们孕期的特定时间使用一种低价的抗疟疾药物,从而预防这种疾病。WHO 建议,孕妇应在诊所获取这种药物,通常需要 4 次左右。

Many pregnant women and new mothers go to medical clinics in sub-Saharan Africa. Yet researchers say only about 21 percent receive intermittent preventive treatment during their pregnancy. And less than 40 percent are given protective bed nets.

在撒哈拉以南非洲,很多孕妇和新妈妈会到内科诊所。然而,研究人员称,只有大概 21%会在她们的孕期接受间断性预防治疗,而且仅有不到 40%的人会获得保护性的蚊帐。

Jenny Hill from the Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine is program manager for a research partnership called the Malaria and Pregnancy Consortium. Ms. Hill says a review of 98 studies found a number of barriers to malaria prevention. These include unclear policy and guidance from government ministers and health care officials. Other problems include drug shortages, a lack of clean water, and confusion about how to administer IPT.

利物浦热带医学学院的 Jenny Hill 是一个名为“疟疾与怀孕联盟”的研究合作团体的项目主管。Hill 女士说,针对 98 项研究进行的综述发现了很多对于疟疾防治的障碍,它们包括来自政府部长和卫生官员的不够清晰的政策和指导,其他问题包括药物短缺、清水紧缺和执行 IPT 的混乱。

“They were unclear on when to give it in terms of gestational age of pregnancy and whether it could be given to women on an empty stomach, whether it should be given under observation in clinics, and so on and so forth, so quite a few of those barriers were around lack of clear policy and guidance.”

“他们不清楚在孕期的什么时候使用它,以及是否应该空腹给孕妇,是否应该在诊所的监护下使用,等等。因此这些障碍很少有清楚的政策和指导。”

Ms. Hill says free intermittent preventive treatment is the policy in 37 countries across the region. But the researchers found that antenatal clinics, or ANCs, may charge fees that can keep some pregnant women from returning.

Hill 女士说,免费的间断性预防治疗是该地区 37 个国家的政策。但是研究人员发现,产检门诊(ANC)可能会收取费用,这让一些孕妇望而却步。

“When they arrive at the clinic for a first ANC visit they have to register, and that requires a registration fee. And there are also fees around getting lab tests and around some drugs.”

“当她们第一次来到诊所进行产前检查时,她们需要注册,而这要注册费。而且在实验室的检查以及一些药物也需要费用。”

Ms. Hill says countries can reduce the number of deaths and early births due to malaria by following the WHO policy on intermittent preventive treatment. She says governments should also provide more money in their budgets for anti-malaria drugs so there are no shortages. Also, they should publicize the importance of malaria prevention among women at highest risk for disease.

Hill 女士说,这些国家可以根据 WHO 的间断性预防治疗政策来减少疟疾引起的死亡和早产。她说,政府还应该为抗疟疾的药物提供更多预算资金,从而避免短缺。而且,他们应该在疾病高发地区向妇女宣传疟疾预防的重要性。

The journal PLoS Medicine published the analysis of maternal and infant malaria prevention measures.

《公共科学图书馆•医学》杂志发表了这些母婴预防措施的分析。

I’m Jim Tedder.

Ether is Used for the First Time as an Anesthetic

乙醚第一次用作麻醉剂

Finally it was on September 30,th1846 that the chemical ether was used for the first time as a medical anesthetic. On that day Eben Frost went to the office of William Morton, a Massachusetts dentist. Mr. Frost had a painful toothache. He was also terrified at the possibility of even more pain if Dr. Morton decided to remove the tooth.

最后, 1846 年的 9 月 30 日,在化学物质乙醚第一次被用作医用麻醉剂。在那一天,Eben Frost 来到了马萨诸塞州牙医 William Morton 的诊所。Frost 先生的牙疼很痛苦。他还很害怕如果 Morton 医生决定拔掉这颗牙的话,可能会更痛苦。

Mr. Frost asked the doctor to hypnotize him so he could avoid the pain. But that was not necessary. Dr. Morton had been experimenting with a chemical called “rectified sulfuric ether.” He had given it to his dog, a cat and even himself, but never on a patient.

Frost 先生要医生催眠他,从而可以避免他的痛苦。但没有必要这样。Morton 先生一直在实验一种化学药品,叫做“矫正剂乙醚”。他注射给了他的狗、一只猫,甚至他自己,但还没试过给病人。

The dentist told Mr. Frost that he had something even better than a hypnotic treatment, if he cared to try it. Mr. Frost willingly agreed. Dr. Morton soaked a piece of cloth with ether and told his patient to breathe in deeply. Mr. Frost became unconscious almost immediately, and the tooth was pulled.

这位牙医告诉 Frost 先生,他有一种比催眠治疗还要好的东西,如果他愿意尝试的话。Frost 先生欣然接受。Morton 先生用乙醚浸湿了一块布,并告诉他的病人深呼吸。Frost 先生几乎马上就失去了知觉,而牙也被拔了下来。

When Mr. Frost awoke a few minutes later, he said he had felt no pain and remembered nothing.

当 Frost 先生在几分钟后清醒过来,他说他没感到痛苦,什么都不记得了。

Dr. William Morton stopped doing dental work to publicize the use of ether, but he went bankrupt. When he died of a stroke at age 49, his wife and children received nothing.

William Morton 医生放弃了牙医工作,宣传乙醚的使用,但他却破产了。当他在 49岁死于中风时,他的妻子和孩子什么都没有得到。

I’m Christopher Cruise, and that’s As It Is from The Voice of America.