Hello, again, and welcome. I’m Jim Tedder in Washington. Have you ever heard anyone say, “I hate listening to the news. It’s always bad!” Well, today we are happy to tell you that the news is good.
Three agencies concerned with world health have announced good news.Their joint report says worldwide deaths among children under age five is almost half that of 22 years ago. We’ll have the details.
三个关注全球健康的机构宣布了好消息。他们的联合报告称，现在全世界 5 岁以下儿童的死亡数差不多是 22 年前的一半。我们将带来具体细节。
Then we will hear about a law professor from Iraqi Kurdistan who recently visited some of the best law schools in the United States. We find out what he learned, and what ideas he took home with him. Those are the two main topics of conversation today as you learn English with As It Is on VOA.
Number of Child Deaths Decreases Worldwide
The United Nations Children’s Fund, the World Health Organization and the World Bank say about 6.6 million children died before reaching their fifth birthday in 2012. That compares with 12 million children who died in 1990.
联合国儿童基金会、世界卫生组织和世界银行称，2012 年有 660 万儿童在 5 岁生日以前死亡。相比之下，1990 年的死亡儿童有 1200 万。
Elizabeth Mason is with the World Health Organization, called WHO. She says the first 28 days of life are extremely important for a child’s survival. Ms. Mason says survival is linked to the care the mother receives during pregnancy. Most importantly, she says it is connected to care during labor, childbirth and the baby’s first hours. She says good care can save premature babies -- those born too soon.
Elizabeth Mason 在世界卫生组织（WHO）工作。她说，婴儿刚出生的 28 天对其存活至关重要。Mason 女士说，婴
儿存活与母亲在孕期受到的照顾是有关的。最重要的是，她说，这与分娩、婴儿的第 1 个小时都有关联。她表示，好的照料可以挽救早产儿——那些出生过早的婴儿。
“We have new low-cost solutions that can reduce deaths of pre-term babies by up to three-quarters.”
For example, she says mothers can receive injections to prevent labor that starts before the child is ready to be born. Kangaroo-mother care is another method of saving babies who arrive too soon. In this method, the baby is put into a pouch -- a special small bag -- next to the mother’s chest. The pouch helps keep the baby warm and provides closeness to breast milk.
The leading causes of death among children under five include premature birth, lack of oxygen, diarrhea and malaria. WHO says about 45 percent of children under five worldwide die because of lack of healthful food.
5 岁以下儿童死亡的主要原因包括早产、缺氧、痢疾和疟疾。WHO 称，全世界大约 45%的 5 岁以下儿童因缺乏健康食物而死亡。
Only five nations represent half of the deaths of children under five worldwide. The countries are China, the Democratic Republic of Congo, India, Nigeria and Pakistan. The report says Africa below the Sahara Desert has the world’s highest child death rate. Ninety eight of 1,000 children born alive in the area do not survive to their fifth birthdays.
仅 5 个国家就占了全世界 5 岁以下死亡儿童的一半，这些国家是中国、刚果共和国、印度、尼日利亚和巴基斯坦。报告称，撒哈拉以南非洲拥有全世界最高的儿童死亡率。该地区出生的每 1000 名儿童就有 98 个无法活过 5 岁生日。
Children born in sub-Saharan Africa face more than 16 times the threat of dying before the fifth birthday than a child born in a wealthy country. But the yearly rate of deaths there has slowed down greatly since 1990.
撒哈拉以南非洲出生的儿童在 5 岁以前面临的死亡风险比富裕国家出生的儿童高 16 倍以上。但是，从 1990 年以来该地区的年死亡率大幅减缓。
Mark Young is a top health advisor at the United Nations Children’s Fund, called UNICEF. He says economic development helps reduce child deaths. But he says poor countries that have a good plan can make major gains. For example, Mr. Young notes that Niger is one of the poorest countries in West Africa. Still, it has cut its rate of deaths of children under age five by almost sixty-six percent in the last twenty years.
Mark Young 是联合国儿童基金会（UNICEF）高级健康顾问。他说，经济发展有助于减少儿童死亡。但他表示，贫
穷国家如果有好的计划就可获得很大改善。比如，Young 先生指出尼日尔是西非最贫穷国家之一，但它在过去 20 年还是将 5 岁以下儿童死亡率降低了将近 66%。
He said Niger has done this through a series of actions led by the government and supported by UNICEF.
他说，尼日尔实现这些是通过政府领导和 UNICEF 的支持完成了一系列行动。
”They instituted a free health care policy for women and children, abolished user fees. ….They expanded geographic access (availability) by establishing a series of rural health posts.”
He says they also organized campaigns to provide a number of preventative interventions to the people.
A Middle Easterner Observes the American Law System
There is an organization here in the United States that believes in letting foreigners get a first-hand look at democracy at work. Christopher Cruise tells us what one Middle Easterner saw when he came to observe the American legal system.
美国有一家机构信任让外国人直接参观工作中的民主政治。Christopher Cruise 向我们讲述一位中东人在参观美国司法机构时所看到的。
A law professor from Iraqi Kurdistan recently had a chance to tour some of the top law schools in the United States. The visits were part of a program at Syracuse University in New York. The Civic Education and Leadership Fellows program, or CELF, is funded by the State Department. Academics in the social sciences from the Middle East and North Africa spend a few months at the Maxwell School for Citizenship and Public Affairs at Syracuse.
The academic program offers course work and individual development of projects to help deepen understanding of democracy and democratic reform. The program at Syracuse is aimed at encouraging greater involvement in civic life.
Nasir Khalil Al-Assaf is an associate professor in the College of Law and Politics at Salahaddin University in Erbil.
Nasir Khalil Al-Assaf 是埃尔比勒市萨拉哈丁大学法律与政治学院的助理教授。
While visiting the law schools, he said, he was impressed by the amount of educational materials available to students.
“When I visited Yale Law School -- which is one of the biggest law schools in USA -- one of the professors took me to the library and show me the library in this school, which is more than seven floors and contains more than one million books.”
“当我访问美国最大的法学院之一——耶鲁法学院的时候，一位教授带我到图书馆并展示了这个学院内的图书馆，它有 7 层楼，容纳 100 多万本书。”
During the visits, Professor Al-Assaf also observed legal clinics in which law students work with people who need legal aid. Some legal education experts would like to see law schools in the United States increase practical work experience like this for their students. The professor says law education in Iraq focuses more on reading and theory than on practical work.
“After my visit to the more than 10 best law schools in USA, I observed that these schools focus on practical subjects through legal clinics. The clinics in [the] USA law schools make the students more qualified and make them ready to practice the law when they graduate from law schools."
He said Iraqi law students often face difficulties when they graduate because they lack practical experience. He noted a big difference between reading the law and practicing it.
At Syracuse, Nasir Kahlil Al-Assaf said he has developed new ideas about legal education. He created a project for when he returns home. He wants to create a bridge between the law school and the local community in Kurdistan.
在雪域大学，Nasir Kahlil Al-Assaf 说他对法律教育产生了新的想法。他创建了一个在他回家之后实施的项目。他希望在库尔德斯特的法学院和当地社团构建一个桥梁。
The project calls for students and professors to volunteer in the community. He said he wants to adopt the example of law students working in legal clinics. That way, he says, poor people can get legal help at the same time students get more chances to practice being a lawyer.
I’m Christopher Cruise.
And I’m Jim Tedder in Washington. Thank you for spending some time with us today. There are two more Learning English programs straight ahead, and world news at the beginning of the hour on VOA.