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[翻译]新闻传真 - 气象学家称北极冰减少“史无前例”

来源:慢速英语   时间:2013-10-09 10:56:34

From VOA Learning English this is As It Is.

Welcome back! I’m Caty Weaver. The United Nations and the World Meteorological Organization created the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change in 1988. The panel is a committee made up of hundreds of scientists. Last week, an IPCC working group released a report about climatic conditions around the world. Today, we will tell you what it says.

联合国和世界气象组织在 1988 年创建了政府间气候变化专门委员会。这个委员会由数百名科学家组成。上周,IPCC 的一个工作小组发布了一份关于全球气候条件的报告。今天,我们将给大家带来它的内容。

And later we visit India where shrinking glaciers and melting Himalayan snow could affect millions of people below.

而随后,我们将来到印度,冰川的减少和喜马拉雅山的冰雪融化将会影响这里的数百万人口。

Scientists are surer than ever before that the Earth is warming and that human activity is to blame. That is the message of the new report from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. As we hear from Christopher Cruise, the report’s findings will help inform policy makers and the public as they consider action to fight climate change.

科学家比以往更确信,地球正在变暖,人类活动难辞其咎。这是政府间气候变化专门委员会的新报告所传递的信息。根据 Christopher Cruise 带给我们的报道,这份报告的成果将为政策制定者和公众提供信息,因为他们正在考虑对抗气候变化的行动。

One-hundred-ten governments approved this scientific agreement:

110 个政府通过了这样的科学协议:

“It is extremely likely that human influence has been the dominant cause of observed warming since the mid-20thcentury.”

“人类的影响极有可能是 20 世纪中期以来观测到气候变暖的主要原因。”

The head of the World Meteorological Organization, Michael Jarraud, spoke at a press conference about the new report.

世界气象组织的主管迈克尔•雅罗在新闻发布会上谈到了这份新的报告。

“It should serve as yet another wake-up call that our activities today will have a profound impact on society, not only for us, but for many generations to come.”

“这可以被当作另一个警示,我们现在的活动会对社会产生深远的影响,不仅仅是对我们,更是对未来的很多代人。”

Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets have been losing mass and glaciers continue to shrink, the report says. It calls the decrease of Artic sea ice, “unprecedented,” meaning nothing like this has been noted before. The report also examines the mean rate of sea level rise. It says that since the middle of the 19thcentury, the rate is higher than at any time in the past 2000 years.

报告指出,格陵兰和南极冰原的质量正在减少,而冰川也一直在减少。它称北极海冰的减少是“史无前例的”,意指此前从没出现过这种情况。该报告还查看了海平面上升的平均速率。他说,自从 19 世纪中期以来,这一速率比过去 2000 年的任何时期都高。

The working group also examined the connection between extreme weather events and climate. Brenda Ekwurzel is a climate scientist with the Union of Concerned Scientists, a non-profit group. She has worked with the scientists who prepared the IPCC report.

这个工作小组还研究了极端天气事件和气候之间的关联。Brenda Ekwurzel 是非营利组织“忧思科学家联盟”的一位气象学家。她和那些准备 IPCC 报告的科学家在一起工作。

“The most we can say is that extreme events dealing with coastal flooding and extreme heat, (we have) very, very high confidence with these events being highly linked to climate change.”

“我们最确定的是,极端事件与沿海洪水和极热天气有关。我们非常、非常确信,这些事件与气候变化关系很大。”

She says the report blames human activity for half of the increased warming over the past fifty or so years. One such activity is the burning of fossil fuels in factories, buildings and cars. This produces heat-trapping gasses.

她说,这份报告认为过去 50 年左右的气温上升有一半都归咎于人类活动。这类活动之一就是工厂、建筑和汽车的化石燃料燃烧。这会产生吸热气体。

Past IPCC reports have led the way to international agreements like the 1997 Kyoto Protocol. It ended in 2012. The United Nation’s top climate official, Christiana Figueres, says the new report will help move new climate talks forward.

以往的 IPCC 报告促使了 1997 年《京都协议书》等国际协议的达成,它在 2012 年终止。联合国的高级气候官员克里斯蒂安娜•菲格蕾丝说,这份新报告将推动新的气候会谈向前发展。

The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change is sometimes criticized as appearing to be too conservative in its predictions. But, Ms. Figueres says this report is right on the mark.

政府间气候变化专门委员会被指责在其预测上有时表现得太保守。但菲格蕾丝女士说,这份报告恰如其分。

“Everything that we thought we knew about climate change has been underestimated, that we will have much faster and much more intense effects from the growing concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. So, it’s a very sobering message that calls for a more invigorated and more accelerated policy response to address that.”

“我们现在对气候变化所了解的一切都是低估了的,大气中温室气体浓度的增长会给我们带来更快速、更强烈的影响。因此,做出这样的反应是在用非常令人清醒的消息呼吁更有活力、更快速的政策。”

Government leaders and climate experts will get a chance to do that at the climate negotiations next month. The talks will take place in the Polish capital, Warsaw.

政府领导和气候学家将有机会在下个月的气候谈判上这么做。这次会谈在波兰首都华沙举行。

I’m Christopher Cruise.

You are listening to As It Is from VOA Learning English.

Now we go to the northern Indian state Himachal Pradesh to look at the effects of rising temperatures right now. The town of Manali is in the Kullu Valley. It is economically dependent on the thousands of people who travel up the Himalaya Mountains every year to escape the heat of the Indian plains.

现在我们到印度北部的喜马偕尔邦,看看气温升高在目前的影响。马纳利镇位于库尔卢谷。它在经济上依赖于每年为了逃避印度平原高温而前往喜马拉雅山脉的数千人口。

D.S. Aditya is manager of Sterling Resorts in Manali. He says many people like to visit a snow-covered pass that lies about 50 kilometers up one mountain.

D.S. Aditya 是马纳利镇斯特里度假村的经理。他说,很多人喜欢前往某座山上 50 公里的一处冰雪覆盖的关口。

“Wherever you go like there’s one destination, this is famous. If you visited Manali, Rohtang is main attraction. Because of the snow.”

“不管你去哪儿,都有这么一个目的地,非常出名。如果你到访马纳利,罗唐关口是最吸引人的。因为这里的冰雪。”

The Rohtang Pass has many more visitors now than it did 10 years ago, thanks partly to the growing financial success of India’s middle class. In summer months, more than two thousand vehicles crowd the narrow mountain road.

罗唐关口现在的游客比 10 年前多了很多,一部分是因为越来越多的印度中产阶级在经济上获得成功。在夏季,会有 2000 多辆汽车拥堵在这条狭窄的山路上。

Ravi Thakur of Himalayan Caravan Adventure has lived in Manali since he was a child.

“喜马拉雅旅行探险”的 Ravi Thakur 从小就住在马纳利。

“Twenty years ago, we could count how many cars are here in Manali. Now, if you come in season time, we do have traffic jam for four, five, six kilometers on the Rohtang Road.”

“20 年前,我们可以数得过来马纳利的汽车。现在,如果你在旺季来,罗唐路上肯定会有 4~6 公里的交通堵塞。”

Visitors enjoy the beauty of the pass. But environmentalists are warning about the increasing traffic on mountains and glaciers.

游客享受这座关口的美景。但环境学家警告了山脉和冰川间不断增加的交通。

J.C. Kuniyal is a scientist at the GB Pant Institute of Himalayan Environment and Development. He is studying temperature changes in the Rohtang area. He says temperatures in the Kullu Valley have risen be about six-tenths of a degree Celsius. That is about the same as the average increase worldwide.

J.C. Kuniyal 是 G.B.庞特喜马拉雅环境与发展研究所的科学家。他正在研究罗唐地区的气温变化。他说,库尔卢谷的气温上升了大约 0.6 摄氏度。这和全世界的平均气温升高大概相同。

But, what worries him is the effects of uncontrolled tourism on the mountain ecosystem.

但是,让他担心的是山地生态系统旅游业失控带来的影响。

“I have seen that the regions which are facing a high influx due to floating population or human activity, there aerosols are increasing. These are supposed to be the main causes to melt the Himalayan glaciers.”

“我发现这些地区,面临流动人口或人类活动所带来的高人口流量,有害烟雾在不断增加。这些应该是喜马拉雅山冰川融化的主要原因。”

The aerosol gases come both from diesel-powered vehicles and burning of wood for cooking by local people. The smoke leaves thick black ash on the glaciers. This causes them to absorb, or take in, more heat.

这些有害烟雾来自燃油的交通工具和当地人做饭时烧的柴。这些烟雾在冰川中留下了厚厚的黑泥。这会导致它们吸收更多的热。

Local people are witnessing the effects of climate change and human activity on glaciers. Ravi Thakur has been walking the mountains since childhood. He says he has seen a loss of mountain snow and glacial ice.

当地人目睹了气候变化和人类活动对冰川的影响。Ravi Thakur 从儿童时代就在这些山上行走。他说,他见证了山上积雪和冰川的流失。

“We keep going every year, almost to the same routes, and I have seen that glaciers, they are receding. In 15 years I have seen that big change.”

“我们每年都要走,几乎是相同的路径,我发现冰川一直在减退。 年来我看到了15巨大的变化。”

That has raised concerns. The area’s local glaciers are the headwaters for rivers like the Indus and the Ganges. The two rivers are the source of fresh water for millions of people in South Asia.

这引起了关注。该地区当地的冰川是印度河和恒河等水流的上游。这两条河流是南亚地区数百万人的淡水水源。

Pradipto Ghosh is a director at the Energy and Resources Institute in New Delhi.

Pradipto Ghosh 是新德里能源与资源协会的主管。

“If the present trend of gradual loss of net glacial mass continues, then over time the flow from the glaciers would reduce.”

“如果现在这种冰块逐渐融化的趋势继续下去,一段时间之后这些冰川的流量就会减少。”

Scientists say there is serious concern about water for agriculture on the Indian plains. Arun Shrestha is a climate change specialist at the International Center for Integrated Mountain Development in Nepal.

科学家称,印度平原的农业用水存在严重隐忧。Arun Shrestha 是尼泊尔山地综合开发国际中心的气候变化学家。

“Those communities, their agricultural system relies quite heavily on melt water.”

“这些社区的农业系统相当依赖冰川融水。”

Some people, like mountain guide Ravi Thakur, worry about possible changes in the future.

一些人,比如山地向导 Ravi Thakur,在担心未来可能出现的变化。

“Till I leave my life, we won’t be facing those scarcity of water, but later on, the coming generation, they will have problems.”

“直到我去世,我们也不会面临这种水源短缺,但再往后,接下来的几代人,他们就会有问题了。”

Environmentalists will continue trying to establish how deep those problems might become.

环境学家会继续尝试,确定这些问题将变得多严重。

And that’s As It Is for today. I’m Caty Weaver. Thanks for joining us!