Hi again! Nice to have you with us on As It Is. I’m Mario Ritter.
Last week Muslims around the world celebrated Eid al-Adha. In English, the four-day celebration is called the Feast of Sacrifice. It recognizes the willingness of the Prophet Ibrahim to sacrifice his son for God. In the end, God told Ibrahim to sacrifice an animal instead.
上周，全世界的穆斯林庆祝了古尔邦节，这个为期 4 天的节日意译为“宰牲节”。它是为了纪念先知易卜拉欣自愿向真主安拉献祭自己的儿子，而最终安拉告诉易卜拉欣以宰杀牲畜作为替代。
Most Muslims celebrate the holiday with a feast. They often share a meal with friends or family. They may also sacrifice a sheep or cow, and give the meat to people who are poor or hungry.
Today we visit some Muslims in Moscow. Russia now has two million Muslims. That is more than any city in Europe. VOA reporter James Brooke looked at how the Muslim population is affecting the Russian capital. Steve Ember has his story.
今天，我们拜访莫斯科的一些穆斯林。俄罗斯现在有 200 万穆斯林，比欧洲任何城市都多。VOA 记者 James Brooke 了解了穆斯林人口对俄罗斯首都的影响。
Last Tuesday, thousands of Muslims began the Eid al-Adha holiday by praying on the streets of Moscow. Some prayer mats were spread below the 100-year-old Moscow Cathedral Mosque.
There are only three other mosques in the city.
该城市另外的清真寺只有 3 个。
Abdul Bari Sultanov is a Russian Muslim from the republic of Tatarstan. He says every neighborhood should have a mosque and a Muslim religious school.
Abdul Bari Sultanov 是来自鞑靼斯坦共和国的俄罗斯籍穆斯林。他说，每个街区都应该有一个清真寺和穆斯林教学校。
But new mosque projects never seem to win building permits. Geydar Bzhemal says Russia’s central government is blocking new Islamic centers in the city.
但是，新的穆斯林工程从来没有获得过建筑许可。Geydar Bzhemal 说，俄罗斯中央政府阻碍在该城市新建伊斯兰教中心。
“They understand the politics of suppression -- direct suppression. And they don't understand that this will create problems for themselves much worse than those they are trying to solve now.”
Sergei Sobyanin is the mayor of Moscow. He was re-elected last month. He says the city will not approve any new mosques. He says the Muslims praying in streets on holidays are not Russian citizens. He says they are mainly Central Asians, guest workers who will return to their own countries.
Voters seem to agree with Mr. Sobyanin. Some Russians have expressed anger against Central Asians and Caucasians who live in Russia. Earlier this month one Slavic neighborhood rioted against those immigrants, many of whom are Muslim.
“Russia forward! Russia forward!”
The riots started because a Slavic Russian man was stabbed to death. An immigrant from Azerbaijan is accused of killing him.
In addition to the riots, police detained about 2,000 migrant workers. Some politicians called for a law banning apartment sales to foreigners. They also want to restrict visas on migrants from Muslim nations along Russia’s southern border. Not long ago, those nations were part of the Soviet Union.
除了暴动，警方扣留了大约 2000 名外来务工者。一些政治家呼吁立法禁止向外国人出售公寓。他们还希望限制为俄罗斯南部边界穆斯林国家的移民者签发签证。不久以前，这些国家还是苏联的一部分。
Isolda Kukushkina moved to Moscow from Ukraine in the early 1980s. She was near the Cathedral Mosque on Tuesday, looking at all the Muslim men praying in the street.
Isolda Kukushkina 在 20 世纪 80 年代从乌克兰移民到了莫斯科。周二的时候她在大教堂清真寺附近，看到了大街上正在祈祷的所有人。
She says she is worried that Moscow will turn Muslim. The city, she says, must keep its Slavic identity.
I’m Steve Ember.
Muslim customs in Libya have also been in the news recently. Most people in that country are Sunni Muslims.
Recently, Libya’s top religious official, the Grand Mufti, declared that all women teachers must cover their faces when teaching young men. Sheikh Sadik Al-Ghariani did not say that unrelated men and women should never be in the same room together. But, he said the best idea would be to separate men and women at schools and universities.
最近，利比亚最高宗教领袖大穆夫提公开宣称所有女性教师在教年轻男子的时候必须蒙面。这位 Sadik Al-Ghariani 族长没说不相关的男性和女性绝不可以出现在同一个房间。但是，他说最好的办法是在学校和大学要分开男性和女性。
His comments angered activists. One woman, named Nareen, says the Grand Mufti’s ideas take the country backwards.
他的话激怒了活动人士。一位名叫 Nareen 的女子说，大穆夫提的想法让国家倒退。
“Well, I’m very upset. I think it’s, it’s a huge step back. It’s very sad to see that this is the way our education system is going. That they’re looking back into segregating women and men and children.”
Sheikh Sadik Al-Ghariani served as grand mufti when Moammar Gadhafi was Libya’s leader. Rebels re-appointed him to keep the position after Mr. Gadhafi was killed.
Sadik Al-Ghariani 族长在穆阿迈尔•卡扎菲担任利比亚总统的时候出任大穆夫提。在卡扎菲先生被杀后，叛军重新任命他担任这个职位。
Traditionally, the Grand Mufti’s decisions do not have the force of law. But, they can shape government policies. And reformers like Nareen are worried that the Grand Mufti is helping make Libya more conservative.
“It’s a long-term political agenda, yes, of course. Because if you start with the education … When you want to change a nation you target education because you’re breeding the future generations. And so you target education because that then will… that’s when you are ingraining what the future will be. So by them targeting the schools, they’re sowing the seeds of the future they want.”
Another activist, a woman named Leila, says Islamists in Libya are moving little by little.
另一位活动人士 Leila 女士表示，利比亚的伊斯兰教徒在一点一点地行动。
“They are waiting for the reaction, how it’s going to be. So that’s their way of trying to take over.”
She says many activists are afraid to speak out. When they do, she says, they receive threats or warnings.
“They target the family. They target your family just to silence you, shut you up. What they are doing is, is much, much more… it’s like octopus. Their hands are everywhere, here and here and here and there.”
In his recent remarks, the Grand Mufti said male and female students must be separate during break times. In other words, boys and girls cannot be together on the playground or in the hallway. And, he said boys and girls should use separate doors. Girls also should not wear make-up or use perfume, he said.
Earlier in the year the Grand Mufti sent a letter to Libyan politicians. In it, he warned that Allah would be angry unless males and females were strictly separated at schools, universities, and even in government offices.
The Ministry of Education will now have to decide what to tell schools about separating boys and girls.
We leave you with the music of American musician Dizzy Gillespie. Mr. Gillespie was a trumpet player, composer and founder of modern jazz. He was born on October 21, 1917.