From VOA Learning English, this is As It Is. I'm Christopher Cruise.
Welcome back. On the show today we look at progress in Mogadishu, Somalia and it struggles to recover from years of civil war and lawlessness. Then, we talk about girls in Uganda. A new study shows that twenty percent of them face special difficulties and danger.
在今天的节目里，我们将关注索马里摩加迪休从多年内战和无法律状态中恢复的进展和困难。接下来，我们将谈论乌干达女孩。一项新的研究显示，她们中有 20% 面临特殊的困难和危机。
Somalis Return to Rebuild Their Country
The Somali city of Mogadishu is recovering from years of war. Many Somalis who left the country have returned to seek careers in business or politics. Avi Arditti reports about the experience of those returnees hoping to find success in Mogadishu.
索马里摩加迪休市正从多年的战乱中恢复。很多逃难的索马里人也返回了祖国，在商业或政治领域寻找工作。Avi Arditti 为我们带来这些希望在摩加迪休获得成功的回国者的经验。
The smell of coffee fills the air at a cafe in the newly rebuilt Makkah hotel in Mogadishu. The hotel is a meeting place for former Somali emigrants who have returned to the city.
Liban Mahti is the owner of the hotel and the small eatery.
Liban Mahti 是该旅馆和小餐馆的老板。
“This is an old hotel. Not old-old, but it is from the mid-80s.”
“这是个老旅馆了。也不是特别古老，但 80 年代中期就有了。”
Liban Mahti returned to Somalia from years in Canada with a plan to fix up the hotel with his family.
Liban Mahti 在加拿大待了几年之后回到索马里，计划与家人一起修缮这家旅馆。
“During the war it got destroyed. My cousins and I and my uncle got back together and we decided to put back the business together and restart and see what we can make out of it, so here it is 25 years after the war. And it’s a good place and people come here to meet and gather, mainly, most of the ex-pats and some of the Somalis who come back from the diaspora, this is their little Starbucks and place to come to.”
“它在战争中被毁坏。我的兄弟和我还有我叔叔一起回来，我们决定一起做回这个生意，重新开始，看看能不能做出点什么。这已经是战后 25 年了。这个地方不错，人们到这里集会，大多数是归侨，一部分是流离归来的索马里人。这里是他们的‘星巴克’和常来的地方。”
Mr. Mahti is among a growing number of Somali diaspora businessmen who are bringing changes to Mogadishu. Business activity has been on the rise in the city during the past two years. The Somali capital appears to be rising from the ruins caused by 20 years of civil war.
Mahti 是越来越多的带给摩加迪休变化的索马里海归商人的一员。过去两年，该城市的商业活动越来越多。索马里首都从 20 年内战所带来的毁坏中呈现出复苏迹象。
Some local Somalis are angered by the return of members of the diaspora. They say all of the good jobs are going to returning immigrants who were educated in Europe, the United States or Canada.
“The local people see that they suffered through this and they have a sense of entitlement for jobs that come from the government or anything that can be done in Somalia. But sometimes the people with the better tools are the people who come from the Diaspora, so at the end of the day who is better for the country is the guy with the better tools to fix the situation.”
Many returning Somalis have entered politics.
Diaspora politicians make up the majority of the federal parliament. The legislature was established last year. Somalia’s current constitution requires lawmakers to have a high level of education. This is helpful for those who went to school overseas.
Hussein Arab Isse represents an area in Somaliland. He spent most of his life in California, but returned to Somalia in 2011.
Hussein Arab Isse 是索马里兰某地区的代表。他一生中大部分时间都在加利福尼亚，但在 2011 年回到了索马里。
“We bring what we can to add to the local culture here, whether its politics or anything else, social services, human rights, all that. There’s many issues when you live abroad, it kind of opens your mind up and you pick them up, and anything bad you leave behind, all the good stuff you bring back home and hopefully contribute.”
He says that for the most part, diaspora and locals have common interests for the country.
“I mean there are some tensions here and there when it comes to employment opportunities, but I think too much has (been) made out of it. I don’t see much problem. I think we are all Somalis and we all want our country to really experience peace and good governance, so we all share that.”
The militant group al-Shabab still carries out attacks in Mogadishu and other parts of Somalia. But the new government has held together and business development continues. People here are hopeful that Mogadishu is moving past its 20 year tragedy.
激进组织青年党仍在摩加迪休和索马里的其他地方进行袭击。但是新的政府团结一致，商业发展也在继续。人们对于摩加迪休正在从 20 年的悲剧中走出充满希望。
I’m Avi Arditti.
You are listening to As It Is from VOA Learning English.
Ugandan Girls Survey
Earlier this month, the Ugandan government and the United Nations Children’s’ Fund released a study about an issue often ignored by the development community. The study found that more than 20 percent of Uganda’s adolescent girls have what it calls “extreme vulnerability.”
Uganda is the first country in the world to use the Adolescent Girls Vulnerability Index. The index measures the difficulties girls face between the ages 10 and 19.
乌干达是世界上第一个使用“青少年女孩脆弱性指数”的国家。这项指数衡量了 10~19 岁女孩所面临的困难。
UNICEF’s David Stewart says the changing population in Uganda makes it urgent to deal with the needs of girls.
UNICEF 的 David Stewart 说，乌干达人口的变化使它亟需应对女孩的需求。
“Uganda’s going through a sort of youth bulge. A very high proportion of the population is going to be young, and of productive age. One of Uganda’s ambitions is to achieve middle-income status by 2040, but to do that, I think the country really needs to unleash the potential of adolescent girls.”
“乌干达正在经历‘青年人膨胀’。人口中有很大比例是年轻人，并处于高产的年纪。乌干达的一个野心就是在 2040 年之前达到中等收入水平，但要这么做，我认为该国家需要真正释放出青少年女孩的潜力。”
The UNICEF official says a study of social programs in Uganda found that very little is being done to help young adolescents.
这位 UNICEF 官员说，乌干达的一项社会项目研究发现，为帮助青少年所做的工作还非常少。
“There tends to be a focus on younger children, and then on youth. But this 10 to 14 year age group, which is such a crucial part of an adolescent girl’s life often doesn’t receive the focus that it should. It sort of gets lost between childhood and youth.”
“注意力倾向于集中到更小的儿童身上，然后是青年人。但是 10~14 岁的年龄段是青少年女孩一生中的关键时期，却经常不能受到应有的关注。在儿童和青年之间有一些缺失。”
The index will be redone every few years. It measures things like education, poverty levels, and rates of early marriage and pregnancy. But it also considers the situations of older women in the community. The women will serve as examples to adolescent girls.
The study shows sharp differences from one part of Uganda to the next. Mondo Kyateka is a youth development specialist at the Ugandan Ministry of Gender. He says the index will help in making policy.
研究显示了乌干达不同地区之间的明显差异。Mondo Kyateka 是乌干达性别部门的青年发展专家。他说，这项指标有助于政策的制定。
“We are thinking that with this index, it will inform government to say, ‘OK, we are sitting on a time bomb, we need to invest in these children.’ And the gains that are likely to accrue from this investment are likely to be very significant in terms of economic growth, in terms of social issues.”
He adds that adolescent girls can play an important part in breaking the cycle of poverty.
“We know that when we empower the girl child, then we are empowering communities. Then we are addressing a lot of other issues, like issues of nutrition, like issues of early childhood marriages, early childhood pregnancy.”
But Vivian Kukunda says many of the difficulties girls face are created by the boys and men around them. Ms. Kukunda works for the Girl Child Network a non-profit organization based in Kampala. She says to fix the problems faced by girls you must also work with boys.
但 Vivian Kukunda 说，女孩们面临的很多困难是她们周围的男孩和男性造成的。Kukunda 女士在坎帕拉的一家非营利组织“女孩网络”工作。她说，要解决女孩面临的这些问题，还必须做男孩的工作。
“We are working with them and we are empowering them, but who is empowering the boys? If they fix the whole issue of the boys it will also help the girls, because they will stop oppressing the girls. No one is telling them, ‘you need to be a good man, you need to be this and do that.’ They don’t have that.”
For now, UNICEF has no plans to extend the index to the rest of the world. But, official David Stewart says the information is already there for other African countries. It only needs to be examined to help spread efforts to empower adolescent girls.
目前，UNICEF 还没有计划将该指标推向全世界。但是，官员 David Stewart 说，对其他非洲国家来说这些信息已经有了，只需要加以检验就能更广泛地帮助青少年女孩。
And that’s As It Is for today. I’m Christopher Cruise. Thanks for joining us.
Stay tuned for VOA world news at the beginning of every hour Universal Time. And remember, we want to hear about the issues and ideas that matter to you, in your world, As It Is. Email your questions or comments to firstname.lastname@example.org.