From VOA Learning English, welcome to As It Is! I’m Steve Ember.
On our program today, we tell about new political movements in South Africa, and how race may be an issue in national elections next year.
And, we remember a space flight 15 years ago by America’s oldest astronaut, John Glenn. He was 77 years old at the time.
此外，我们将纪念 15 年前美国最老宇航员约翰•格伦的航天飞行。他当时 77 岁。
First, to South Africa for a report about politics and race.
South Africa is preparing for national elections next year, and race has once more become an issue. One new political party has criticized the white minority who profited under the country’s former system of racial separation. At the same time, a small group of white South Africans say their race is threatened with what they have called “genocide.”
Political observers say out of control racial hatred is not in step with life in South Africa today.
Almost 20 years ago, South Africa’s first black president, Nelson Mandela, described his country as a “rainbow nation” at peace with itself. Mr. Mandela’s presidency ended the apartheid system. Under apartheid, nonwhites were oppressed and treated as unequal to white South Africans.
将近 20 年前，南非首位黑人总统纳尔逊•曼德拉称自己的国家是和平的“彩虹之国”。曼德拉先生的总统任期结束了种族隔离体系。在种族隔离之下，非白人备受压迫，并受到与南非白人不平等的对待。
But racism is still a reality in the country today. And two political movements have recently used race in an effort to increase support among possible voters.
In early October, a group of white South Africans held a protest over what they described as “genocide” against the country’s whites. The group called itself Red October. It said white South Africans no longer feel safe because they are targeted and killed on their farms and in homes across the country.
The group estimates that at least 3,000 white South Africans have been killed in the past 10 years. Red October said they died mainly in incidents linked to robberies it says are evidence of hate crimes.
该组织估计，至少 3000 名南非白人在过去 10 年被杀。红色十月称，他们多数死于与抢劫有关的事故，它说这是仇视犯罪的证据。
But the number is small when compared to the total number of murder victims. Over the past year alone, South African police confirmed more than 16,200 murders nationwide.
但是这个数字与谋杀案受害者的总数相比还很小。仅在过去 1 年，南非警方就在全国确认了超过 1.62 万谋杀案件。
Another new party is accusing white South Africans of pushing up crime levels. It says whites are doing this by refusing to share their wealth with the country’s poor black majority.
The new group is the Economic Freedom Fighters Party. Its leader, Julius Malema, formerly served as president of the African National Congress Youth League. He has warned white South Africans who got land during the colonial period to return it to blacks. Mr. Malema says do so, or forget about restoring friendly relations.
He accuses white people of stealing land that rightly belonged to black South Africans. He says whites want blacks to plead for their land, but that will not happen.
“We are not going to do that. We are not going to beg for our land.”
Mr. Malema’s supporters seemed to take his message even further. For example, one sign carried at a recent party gathering read: “To be a revolutionary you have to be inspired by hatred and bloodshed.”
Helen Zille is head of South Africa’s main opposition party, the Democratic Alliance. She condemns the murders, especially those on farms. And she admits that conditions in many places are very bad, especially in unofficial, informal settlements.
Helen Zille 是南非主要反对派“民主联盟”领袖。她谴责了这些谋杀，尤其是发生在农场里的。她还承认，很多地方的条件还很差，尤其在非官方、非正规聚居点。
“But to try and turn it into a race mobilization issue is totally counter-productive and certainly does not have my support.”
Anthea Jeffery is with the South African Institute of Race Relations. She says that while racial tensions still exist, relations have really improved over the years.
Anthea Jeffery 在南非种族关系研究所工作。她说，虽然白人的种族紧张局势仍然存在，但这些年关系还是改善了不少。
“There is obviously still a great deal of racial inequality within the country. There is of course the sense that to be black is to run a greater risk of being jobless and to be poor, and to be white is to have a much greater prospect of good jobs and income. The economic pinch is affecting everybody, and the racial scapegoat is a very easy avenue for the country to follow.”
She says the true issue is a lack of economic equality. She says the government needs to work harder to make the economy more equal.
“What we really need to see if South Africa is to get onto the right path, is an emphasis on growth. If we were to have investment and growth and jobs, it’s very important that there should be racial harmony, that there should be a sense of trust across the different population groups.”
Anthea Jeffrey and the South African Institute of Race Relations say their research suggests that Red October and the EFF represent extremes in politics. They say race is not likely to influence most South Africans when they vote next year.
Anthea Jeffrey 和南非种族关系研究所表示，他们的研究认为红色十月和 EFF 代表了政治极端分子。他们说，种族不太可能对大多数南非人明年的选举产生影响。
Our thanks to Thuso Khumalo for this report from Johannesburg.
As It Is is coming to from VOA Learning English. I’m Steve Ember.
Remembering John Glenn's 1998 Return to Space- at Age 77
纪念约翰•格伦在 1998 年 77 岁时重返太空
Former Astronaut Scott Carpenter: “Godspeed, John Glenn.” [Countdown to launch]
Now, we travel back in time to October 29, 1998. On that day, John Glenn became America’s oldest astronaut at 77 years of age. He flew on the Space Shuttle Discovery as a payload specialist.
现在，我们回到 1998 年的 10 月 29 日。那一天，约翰•格伦以 77 岁高龄成为了美国最年长的宇航员。他以科学宇航员的身份搭乘“发现号”航天飞机。
NASA Announcer [gives countdown, then]: “Booster ignition and liftoff of Discovery with a crew of six astronaut heroes and one American legend.”
NASA 发言人：“发现号带着 6 位航天英雄和一位美国传奇完成了助推器点火和发射。”
The American space agency says the former Senator – and pioneer astronaut - took part in experiments on the process of aging.
John Glenn spent nine days in space. During that time, the shuttle orbited Earth 134 times.
约翰•格伦在太空中待了 9 天。在这段时间，航天飞机环绕地球 134 圈。
The 1998 flight was very different from his first space flight. On February 20th, 1962, he made one of history’s most important flights. He became the first person to orbit the Earth.
1998 年的这次飞行与他的第一次航天飞行非常不同。1962 年的 2 月 20 日，他完成了历史上最重要的一次航天飞行。他成为了第一个环绕地球的人。
[Radio transmission by John Glenn from Mercury capsule in 1962]:
“…and I feel fine. Capsule is turning around. Oh, that view is tremendous! Roger, turnaround has started. Capsule turning around. I can see the booster during turnaround, just a couple hundred yards behind me. It’s beautiful.”
In four hours and 56 minutes, John Glenn circled the Earth three times in the Mercury capsule Friendship Seven.
在 4 小时 56 分钟内，约翰•格伦乘坐“水星计划友谊 7 号”环绕地球 3 圈。
The former test pilot became a hero and received a medal from then-President John F. Kennedy.
“A few days ago, Colonel Glenn came to the White House and visited me. And he was, as are the other astronauts, the kind of American of whom we are most proud.”
John Glenn served in the United States Senate from 1974 to 1999, representing his home state of Ohio. Today, at 92, he is the last living member of America’s Mercury astronauts.
约翰•格伦在 1974~1999 年担任美国参议员，代表他的家乡俄亥俄州。今天，92 岁的他是唯一在世的美国水星计划宇航员。
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Thanks for joining us. Steve Ember here, see you next time.