Hello. It is nice to be with you again. I’m Jim Tedder in Washington. Today we travel to the Philippines to hear how officials are using technology to plan for natural disasters. In the second part of the show, we turn our attention to health news, and the fight against the disease malaria. Listen carefully, and use what you hear to learn or improve your English. As It Is …is coming your way.
The Philippines often suffers more natural disasters than other countries. Philippine disaster risk planners have begun using a new tool to make maps of at risk areas in Manila. This technology will help identify weak structures, measure population density and predict financial losses should disaster strike.
The Philippines lies on tectonic plates at the bottom of the Pacific Ocean. The movement of tectonic plates can cause earthquakes and volcanic activity. Other natural disasters have resulted from tropical storms and heavy rain.
Over the years, different maps have shown active fault lines and places where flooding could happen. Recently, the national government in the Philippines gave maps to officials in Metropolitan Manila. The maps show the effects of earthquakes, wind damage from storms and flooding from heavy rain.
The scenarios – or possible situations -- were made with LiDAR, a sensing technology that lights up buildings and other objects with lasers.
这些情境——或可能的情形——是用 LiDAR 绘制的，它是一种用激光探测建筑和其他物体的遥感技术。
Renato Solidum heads the Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology. His office produced the risk analysis of earthquake scenarios. He says these new maps help planners with what he calls their “disaster imagination.”
Renato Solidum 是菲律宾火山与地震研究所的所长。他的团队制作了这份地震情境风险分析。他说，这些新的地图帮助规划者建立他所谓的“灾害想象”。
“Sometimes in order to convince decision-makers and even(other) people to do things right away is, you have to show how many people will die, how many buildings will suffer, how many millions of pesos would you need to rehabilitate (restore) or replace this. You need damage or impact figures, rather than the threat.”
In the risk analysis project, one scenario shows a 7-point-2 earthquake in the Manila area would result in 37,000 deaths. The damage would cost an estimated 56 million dollars to repair.
风险分析项目中的一个情境显示，马尼拉地区的一场 7.2 级地震会造成 3.7 万人死亡，带来的破坏将耗资约 5600 万美元才能修复。
The Philippines not only suffers from natural disasters. Its population centers have factors, or issues, that increase the chance of risk. They include fast growth and violations of rules like building codes. Other concerns include poor people living in areas that often flood, and poor solid-waste treatment.
Researchers on the project created what they call an “exposure database.” It combines population and structural information, such as a building’s age and where development has spread. In exchange for getting the computer software, city planners have to add details from their localities to the database.
Ishmael Narag is a researcher with the Institute of Volcanology and Seismology. He says being prepared for disasters does not have to depend on technology. He says smaller, poorer communities can use available information from population counts and other studies. He says this information can help them come up with their own estimate of risk.
Ishmael Narag 是火山与地震研究所研究员。他说，为灾害做准备不需要依靠科技。他说，较小、较贫穷的社区可以使用人数统计和其他研究的可用信息。他表示这种信息可以帮助他们提出自己的风险评估。
Herbert Bautista is the mayor of Quezon City and president of the League of Cities of the Philippines. He calls the new maps and information database, “a big deal for local government.” He says this new tool will help local governments obey a national law that requires land-use plans to include risk areas. Mr. Bautista says the information can help the government stop developers from trying to build homes on fault lines or soil that easily takes in water.
Herbert Bautista 是奎松市的市长和菲律宾城市联盟的主席。他称这些地图和信息数据库是“给地方政府的大礼”。他说，这种新方法能帮助地方政府实现国家法律要求的在风险地区使用土地的计划。Bautista 先生说，这些信息可以帮助政府避免开发者在断裂带或容易受水侵袭的土地上修建房屋。
And, Mr. Narag says getting information from cities will be important to the success of using the new tool for disaster reduction planning. In his words, “The science is only as good as what the date could give, so it’s very important that this is communicated to the local government.
The Australian and Philippine governments made possible the project that led to the creation of the maps and the data base. Financing came from the Australian Agency for International Development.
Malaria Fight Continues
Attacking mosquitoes early in their development may help with efforts to control malaria. The disease kills an estimated 660,000 people every year, mostly in Asia and in areas south of the Sahara Desert. Steve Ember joins us with the latest information.
在蚊子发育的早期对付它们可能有助于疟疾的控制。据估计这种疾病每年导致 66 万人死亡，大多数在亚洲和撒哈拉沙漠南部的地区。
One way to prevent malaria is by using mosquito nets treated with long-lasting insecticides. Another way is to spray such chemicals inside buildings. Both methods target adult mosquitoes. However, the insects are developing resistance to the chemicals.
Another method targets mosquito larvae, the young, not yet fully developed mosquito. This method is called larval source management, or LSM.
Recently, researchers examined 13 studies of LSM from eight countries.
最近，研究人员调查了 8 个国家的 13 项 LSM 研究。
Lucy Tusting is with the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. She says the new research is important because a number of African and other countries are using larval source management. However, she says, opinions differ about the value of LSM and where it should be used.
Lucy Tusting 在伦敦卫生学与热带医学学院工作。她说，这项新的研究很重要，因为很多非洲国家和其他国家正在使用幼虫源管理。然而，她说对于 LSM 的价值及其应该用在哪里还说法各异。
“There’s a real lack of consensus on how effective the method can be and in which settings it’s appropriate.”
Targeting mosquitoes early would seem to be a valuable addition to any control program. But Lucy Tusting says it is not easy to decide whether to use the method.
较早对付蚊子似乎对任何控制项目来说都是很有补充价值。但 Lucy Tusting 说，很难决定是否要用这种方法。
“First of all, we do have very, very effective existing methods of malaria control. Long-lasting insecticide-treated nets and indoor residual spraying are both highly effective.”
She says these methods have been a major reason for the successes in malaria control in recent years. But because of those successes, scientists believe there has been less need to look at other ways to fight the disease. Fewer studies have been organized.
The World Health Organization has released guidelines, suggestions, on the use of LSM. Currently the organization does not support of using larvacides in rural sub-Saharan Africa unless there are conditions that limit the habitats of mosquito larvae.
世界卫生组织发布了使用 LSM 的指南和建议。目前，该组织不支持在撒哈拉以南非洲的农村地区使用幼虫杀灭剂，除非有限制蚊子幼虫生存的条件。
VOA’s Steve Ember with some important information about the fight against malaria.
And I’m Jim Tedder in Washington, thanking you for spending some time with us on this last Thursday of October. It is a special day in the United States, and in many other parts of the world. It’s Halloween, or “All Hallow’s Eve.” Young and old alike dress up in scary costumes and either attend parties, or go door-to-door saying, “Trick or treat,” and asking for candy.
今天是美国和世界上其他很多地方的特殊日子，“万圣节前夕”。小孩和大人都穿着相似的吓人服饰，要么参加派对，要么挨家挨户地说“Trick or treat”，然后索要糖果。
Historians say it is a very old holiday that started in Europe 1400 years ago. So to one and all, “Happy Halloween” from all of us at VOA. More learning English programs are right around the corner, as is world news, at the beginning of the hour.