Hello there, and welcome to “As It Is,” VOA’s daily show for people learning American English.
I’m Christopher Cruise in Washington.
Today on the program, we hear from Anita Powell. She is VOA’s main radio and television reporter for southern Africa. She tells us about the South African city of Johannesburg -- a place she considers both strange and energetic.
在今天的节目里，我们将听到来自 Anita Powell 的报道。她是 VOA 驻非洲南部的主要广播电视记者。她将向我们讲述南非城市约翰内斯堡，她认为这个地方又奇怪又充满活力。
“The city can be crazy and hard-edged, but it has an energy that I have rarely seen anywhere else. Here in Johannesburg, anything goes, and everyone is welcome. And we like it that way.”
But first, we report on the issue of corruption in South Africa, and what officials there say they are doing about it…
Fighting Corruption in South Africa
The group Transparency International follows corruption in many countries. It recently released a report that may finally lead to real changes in South Africa.
The report says almost half of South Africans paid a bribe for a necessary service.
The worldwide average is about 25 percent.
该报告称，2012 年几乎有一半南非人向官员行贿，以获取必需服务。世界平均水平是 25%。
Paul Hoffman heads the Institute for Accountability in Southern Africa. He is not surprised by the finding.
Paul Hoffman 是南非责任研究所的主管。他对研究结果并不意外。
“Corruption thrives when there’s an absence of public accountability, where the levels of transparency in governance are lacking and where a culture of impunity takes root. And all three of those factors are available in abundance in South Africa.”
David Lewis is the head of Corruption Watch, a non-profit organization.
David Lewis 是非盈利组织“贪腐观察”的主管。
“There is plenty of vulnerability in the system for those who would abuse it, to take advantage of it. And, and, you know, it’s one of the things that we’re beginning to recognize, which I think makes combating corruption so difficult is that there is around every public sector resource, there are sort of interests clustered who are living off them -- sometimes living quite, you know, relatively speaking, quite elaborately off them. And, so these are, these are difficult to, to tackle.”
The South African government is answering the report with new efforts to fight corruption. Lindiwe Sisulu is the minister for public service and administration. She says the government will create a new anti-corruption agency, and her ministry will ask the legislature to approve more anti-corruption laws.
南非政府用新的反腐行动回应了这个报告。Lindiwe Sisulu 是公共服务和管理部部长。她说，政府会创立新的反腐机构，她的部门会要求立法机构通过更多的反腐法律。
The South African Police Service announced plans to launch a new anti-corruption department, but the service’s Lt. General Solomon Makgale said police are not the only ones to blame.
南非警务宣布了在未来 6 个月启用一个新反腐部门的计划。但警务部门的 Solomon Makgale 中将说，警察不应是受责怪的唯一人群。
“Some of the media reports -- well, most of them -- they put a lot of emphasis on the police who are being corrupted. They forget that there is an equal responsibility on the person that is doing the corrupting.”
He does, however, admit that the police service must make changes.
“What is important for us is that corruption is a reality in South Africa, corruption is a reality within the South African Police Service, and the national commissioner has made it very clear that this needs to be dealt with by forming an anti-corruption unit that’s going to focus exclusively on addressing criminality within the South African Police Service.”
Paul Hoffman of the Institute for Accountability says the planned reforms will be effective only if they are enforced and kept separate from politics.
责任研究所的 Paul Hoffman 说，只有计划的改革能够得以实施并与政治分离，它们才会有效。
“They won’t persuade me that they are serious about corruption until such time as a body that is specialized, trained, independent, properly resourced -- and who’s membership has security of tenure of office -- exists. We do not have a body that has any of those attributes.”
“You’ll Get Killed!”
South Africa’s Advertising Standards Authority has ruled that the city of Johannesburg must stop calling itself a “world-class African city.” Johannesburg has been using advertisements that describe the city as financially stable and environmentally friendly. But the independent authority says that is just not true.
In this Reporter’s Notebook, VOA’s Anita Powell tells us about life in South Africa’s biggest city and, in her opinion, possibly Africa’s strangest…
在下面这篇记者手记上，VOA 的 Anita Powell 将向我们讲述这座南非最大城市的生活，而在她看来，它也许是最奇怪的城市。
There is a fine-chocolate store in Johannesburg that carefully places large amounts of tissue paper around the sweets you buy there. Just down the road is a car dealership that sells costly Ferraris. Nearby is a private school for boys, where costs for a single year of studies start at $7,500. That is the same as the cost for three years at the University of Johannesburg.
约翰内斯堡有一个巧克力店，你在那里买的糖果都有大量包装细致的糖纸。就在那条路上，有一个汽车专卖店出售昂贵的法拉利。附近是一家男子私立学校，那里每年的学费起价 7500 美元。这和约翰内斯堡大学 3 年的学费相同。
But just a short drive north is the settlement of Diepsloot. It is known for violent attacks on foreigners, mob violence and protests by people demanding running water and electricity.
但驾车向北一小段距离就是 Diepsloot 地区。它为人所知的是针对外国人的暴力袭击、群众暴动，以及自来水和电的需求者举行的游行。
It is those conflicting worlds that troubled Steven Haywood when he heard a radio advertisement with the words “Joburg, a World-Class African City.” Mr. Haywood brought his concerns to the Advertising Standards Authority.
正是这些矛盾的世界让 Steven Haywood在听到广播广告说“约翰内斯堡，世界级非洲城市”时非常烦恼。Haywood 先生将他的担心带到了广告标准局。上个月，该组织裁定他是对的。
It agreed with him that records show investigators have examined local government spending three times. They agreed that the city’s waste-management company often leaves trash lying around on streets for days. And its roads agency lacks money to fix the roads.
Mr. Haywood also noted that $1.2 billion in public money is missing. This information, he said, is on the city’s own website!
Haywood 先生还指出，有 12 亿美元的公共资金丢失了。他说，这一信息在该城市自己的网站上！
Nthatisi Modingoane is a spokesman for the city of Johannesburg. He says the city will appeal the ruling. He says Johannesburg is working to become financially and environmentally strong.
Nthatisi Modingoane 是约翰内斯堡市的发言人。他说，该市会起诉这项裁定。他说，约翰内斯堡正努力在经济上和环境上变得发达。
“You know, whoever (is) listening might be saying because I’m biased, and, ah, because they pay my salary. But, for me it’s beyond that. We, we attract so many people coming through Johannesburg. People are rushing here -- it says there is something that is being talked about through the word of mouth in terms of how great this city is.”
Gerald Garner works for the Joburg City Tourism Association. He calls the city “one of the most exciting on the planet.”
Gerald Garner 在约堡旅游协会工作。他将该城市称作“这个星球上最令人兴奋的城市之一”。
“The city is a melting pot, it’s a very creative place -- one of the most creative cities on the planet -- and you never have a dull moment in this city.”
Johannesburg calls itself “Egoli” -- or “The City of Gold.” But many people -- referring to the city’s high crime rate -- say the unofficial name is “The place where you’ll get killed.” A number of people in Johannesburg have said this to me. “You want to walk through your neighborhood?” asks the woman who takes the bus to the city every day from a poor area. “Oh, no, my dear, you’ll get killed,” she warns. “You live where?” asks a friend who lives just five minutes from where I live. “You’ll get killed.”
约翰内斯堡自称 “Egoli”——金子之城。但很多人说——鉴于该城市的高犯罪率——非官方的名字是“你会被杀的地方”。很多约翰内斯堡的人对我谈到了这个。“你想要在你的街区走动？”一位每天从穷人区乘巴士到该城市的女子问道。“天呐，你会被杀的。”她警告说。“你住在哪儿？”一位住得离我的住处只有 5 分钟路程的朋友问道。“你会被杀的。”
Johannesburg is a place that fought early and hard against apartheid -- the system that separated blacks and whites. But until six years ago a main road was still named after Hendrik Verwoerd -- the man who created apartheid!
约翰内斯堡是一个很早就艰难地与种族隔离政策（一种分裂黑人和白人的体系）作斗争的地方。但直到 6 年前，一条主路还仍然以种族隔离创始人亨德里克•维沃尔德命名！
The city has an internationally-respected art and literary environment. But you can also buy dried monkey paws at a busy market, and you can find people who promise to bring back your lost lover or make parts of your body bigger. Some of them will provide this service by mobile phone.
The city can be crazy and hard-edged, but it has an energy that I have rarely seen anywhere else. Here in Johannesburg, anything goes and everyone is welcome. And we like it that way.
Is Johannesburg a world-class city? Maybe not, but its weirdness certainly is.
This is Anita Powell, VOA News, in Johannesburg.
And that’s our program for today. I hope you’ve enjoyed learning about Johannesburg, South Africa.
I’m Christopher Cruise, and that’s “As It Is” from The Voice of America.