Hello, and welcome to As It Is. I’m George Grow.
Today we tell about struggles facing lawyers in South Sudan. They are helping the country’s government control rebels -- within the rule of law.
Next, we hear a report about the dangers of pregnancy to girls under age 18.
接下来，我们听到一篇 18 岁以下怀孕女孩面临危险的报道。
And finally, we remember Grace Kelly, the American film actress who became a European princess.
But first, we turn to a young nation’s struggles to establish law and order -- how lawyers are helping.
Lawyers in South Sudan Face Struggles
South Sudan won its independence from Sudan in 2011 after many years of bitter fighting. Today, a government made up of former warlords -- former militia leaders -- is seeking to control life-long rebels within the rule of law.
南苏丹经过多年痛苦斗争，在 2011 年从苏丹赢得了独立。现在，一个由前军阀（以前的民间军事领袖）建立的政府正寻求在法治下控制终生叛军。
At the center of this new battle are about 250 lawyers. They are working hard in one of the most dangerous jobs in the country.
大约 250 位律师卷入了这场新的战役。他们在努力完成该国家最危险的一项工作。
Deng Awur is the head of South Sudan’s only law college. He works in a dark office at Juba University. The office has no electricity, and his law books serve as the only library.
Deng Awur 是南苏丹唯一法学院的院长。他在朱巴大学的一个昏暗的办公室工作。这个办公室没有电，而他的法律书籍是仅有的“图书馆”。
Mr. Awur says about 80 people will finish their law school studies and graduate this year. Their skills are deeply needed if the government is to establish the rule of law.
Awur 先生说，今年大约将有 80 人完成他们的法学院课程并且毕业。如果政府要建立法治，他们的技能会非常有需求。
About 250 lawyers have returned to South Sudan from overseas. Mr. Awur says their skills are as mixed as those of members of the country’s legal systems. South Sudan is moving back to a common law system. The system was first established in Sudan during British colonial rule. Islamic law came to Sudan in the 1980s.
大约 250 位律师从海外返回南苏丹。Awur 先生说，他们的技能和国家法律体系的成员一样，形形色色。南苏丹正在恢复一般的法律体系。该体系是英国殖民统治时期在苏丹最早建立的。伊斯兰教法律在 20 世纪 80 年代进入苏丹。
But more than 60 tribes are using differing customary laws. Mr. Awur says those systems treat half the population unfairly.
但是，60 多个部落使用的是不同习惯的法律。Awur 先生说，半数人口受到了这些体系的不公平对待。
“A woman cannot inherit property of her husband or her father. But there are real, real issues for women, and laws -- the law is clear, the law is clear. The law is not taking chances with anybody. So we hope, through time, people will be enlightened to accept that reality that human beings are the same. The law is for everybody, the constitution is for everyone, and there is no bias. We don’t want any bias against or for anybody.”
Juba University has stopped teaching Sharia law. In the past, Sharia was one of its main subjects.
Victor Lowilla directs legal aid at the South Sudan Law Society. He says Sharia still influences current laws and must be removed.
Victor Lowilla 在南苏丹律师协会主管法律援助。他说，伊斯兰教法仍在影响现行法律，必须被移除。
Mr. Lowilla wants all of South Sudan’s laws to be re-examined. He wants to prevent chiefs from declaring strong sentences. And he calls for ending a number of cruel practices that continue under customary law. For example, a custom called “ghost marriages” forces women to marry dead men. This tradition calls for a young girl to be given as payment to the family of a murdered man.
Mr. Lowilla also notes that lack of lawyers has left many people in jail, unable to get hearings before judges. But the shortage is most worrying for the hundreds of people awaiting execution. These prisoners are individuals suspected of crimes like murder or rebellion.
Mr. Lowilla says prison officials help some of them. And he says others who have enough money can get a lawyer to help with their appeals.
“But most of them have no lawyers to represent them during their cases. They have no lawyers to do their appeals. So they have no lawyers to write for them, even, I mean, to write the president to pardon them. “
Lawyers often must travel great distances to help people who need representation. Victor Lowilla says 80 percent of South Sudanese live in rural areas. Yet 85 percent of the country’s lawyers live in Juba, the capital.
律师经常要旅行很远的距离来帮助需要代理的人。Victor Lowilla 说，80%的南苏丹人生活在农村地区。而该国家 85%的律师住在首都朱巴。
In one case in Western Bahr el Ghazal, five lawyers were defending 50 suspects after protests in which security forces attacked civilians. The lawyers received death threats or were threatened outside the court.
在西加扎勒河省的一个案件中，5 位律师在一场安全部队袭击平民的游行后为 50 名嫌犯辩护。这些律师收到了死亡威胁，或者说在法庭外受到威胁。
I’m George Grow.
Now, on to problems of pregnancy and childbirth for teenage girls…
The Dangers of Pregnancy for Girls Under 18
A United Nations report says millions of adolescent girls suffer serious long-term health and social problems from pregnancy. The UN Population Fund recently released its State of the World Population report in Geneva, Switzerland. It found that 7.3 million girls under age 18 give birth worldwide every year. The young mothers include two million girls younger than 14.
一项联合国报告称，数百万未成年女孩因怀孕遭受长期的健康和社会问题。联合国人口基金会最近在瑞士日内瓦发布了世界人口状况报告。它发现全世界每年有 730 万 18 岁以下女孩生孩子。这些年轻妈妈包括 200 万 14 岁以下的女孩。
Kelly Jean Kelly has more.
Giving birth to a baby should be a happy time in a woman’s life. But for millions of young girls around the world, early pregnancy and childbirth result in serious problems.
The UN’s State of the World Population 2013 report finds that in developing countries, 20,000 girls under 18 give birth every day. The report estimates that 70,000 young women in developing countries die each year during pregnancy and childbirth.
联合国的《2013 年世界人口状况报告》发现，发展中国家每天有 2 万名 18 岁以下女孩生育。该报告估计，发展中国家每年有 7 万年轻女性在怀孕和生育期间死亡。
The director of the UN Population Fund in Geneva, Alanna Armitage, says young girls are more likely to be forced to marry and have sex. She says death among mothers under age 15 from low- and middle-income countries is twice that of older women.
日内瓦的联合国人口基金会主任阿兰娜•阿米蒂奇说，年轻女孩更有可能被迫结婚和发生性行为。她说，中、低收入国家 15 岁以下母亲的死亡数是成年母亲的 2 倍。
The report demonstrates the economic results of adolescent pregnancy. For example, the report considers Kenya. It says the Kenyan economy would have improved greatly if the more than 200,000 young mothers studied had been employed instead of getting pregnant. It says the economy would have gained 3.4 billion dollars.
该报告论证了青少年怀孕的经济后果。比如该报告考虑的肯尼亚。它指出，如果研究中的这 20 万年轻母亲参加工作而非怀孕的话，肯尼亚经济会有大幅提高。它说，其经济会增加 34 亿美元。
The report finds that in every area of the world, poor, undereducated girls from rural areas are more likely to become pregnant than richer urban girls. UNFPA Senior Maternal Health Advisor Luc de Bernis says the young mothers most threatened with death live in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia.
该报告发现，在世界上的每个地方，农村地区贫穷、缺少教育的女孩比较富有的城市女孩更有可能怀孕。UNFPA 高级产妇健康顾问 Luc de Bernis 说，受死亡威胁最严重的年轻妈妈是在撒哈拉以南非洲和南亚。
He also notes that many young women die from getting abortions -- the medical end of pregnancy.
The report says adolescent pregnancy is a much bigger problem for the developing world than for developed nations. But, it finds that pregnancy for young girls is still important in richer nations. And it says society should help girls and young women instead of blaming them for getting pregnant.
I’m Kelly Jean Kelly.
Now, time to remember the birth anniversary of an American actress who became a lasting symbol of beauty and glamour. Grace Patricia Kelly was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania on November 12th, 1929. She is remembered for many films like “Rear Window,” “Dial M for Murder” and “To Catch a Thief.” She won an Academy Award for her work in “Country Girl.”
现在，纪念一位美国女演员的诞辰，她成为了美貌和魅力的持久性象征。格蕾丝•帕特丽夏•凯利在 1929 年 11 月 12 日出生于宾夕法尼亚州的费城。她的很多电影被铭记，比如《后窗》、《电话谋杀案》 《捉和贼记》。她在电影《乡村女孩》中的表现为她赢得了奥斯卡金像奖。
Grace Kelly gave up her career to marry Prince Rainier of Monaco. They had three children. In 1982, Princess Grace died after an automobile accident. She was only 52 years old.
格蕾丝•凯利放弃她的事业嫁给了摩纳哥王子雷尼尔。他们有 3 个孩子。1982 年，格蕾丝王妃死于一场车祸，年仅 52 岁。
I’m George Grow. Thanks for joining us on As It Is.
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